Tuesday, April 30, 2019

The differences between macroeconomics and microeconomics Essay

The variations between macroeconomics and microeconomics - Essay ExampleFor example, the objective of study microeconomic surmisal is to get word the factors related to the optimal allocation of resources whereas, the objective of macroeconomics is to study the factors related to employment and development of intimidate resources in the rescue. Although microeconomics objective is to focus on individual units in the economy and macroeconomics objective to focus on entire economy, both of these fields are contributing to the study of economy and individual behaviours in the economy. The difference between microeconomic theory and macroeconomic theory is that microeconomics focuses on the economic behaviours of individuals including business firms, consumers and resources owners whereas, macroeconomics focuses on economy as a whole and deals with aggregate levels of output, economy, national income and expenditures (Salvatore, 2006, pp.8). According to Professor G. Thimmaya (cit ed in Jain & Khanna, 2010) the consequence difference between the cardinal fields is that price is the major(ip) determiner of problems in microeconomics whereas, income is the major determinant of problems in macroeconomics. In other words, the decisions taken in microeconomics are primarily based on price such as factors of production whereas, the decisions made in macroeconomics are based on income such as total consumption and total investments. Wessels (2006, pp.101) argues that in macroeconomics, the economy is studied as a whole whereas in microeconomics, the economic actions of people including individual firms and the individual households are studied. Wessels explains the difference between the two branches of economics. He argues that if in microeconomics the function of... This essay presents a modern theoretic analysis of the differences and similarities between microeconomics and macroeconomics. Various differences between macroeconomics and microeconomics are ident ified in the essay however the primary difference is related to aggregation and objective of the two fields. Both these fields are strong interrelated and concepts and theories of microeconomics are necessary to study concepts in macroeconomics. economics is the examination of mankind in the normal business of life it analyses the actions of individuals and society which are closely associated with the work and utilisation of needs of well-being. The two branches of economics are microeconomics and macroeconomics. These two fields differ in their field and objective.The core difference between the two fields is that price is the major determinant of problems in microeconomics whereas, income is the major determinant of problems in macroeconomics.Both subjects have different objectives. The objective of study microeconomic theory is to understand the factors related to the optimal allocation of resources whereas, the objective of macroeconomics is to study the factors related to em ployment and development of scare resources in the economy.Microeconomics and macroeconomics are substantially related with each other. Major chunk of modern macroeconomics theory involves the applications of microeconomics because the aggregate outcomes in macroeconomics are usually rooted from the decision making theories of consumers and firms

Federalism and State Powers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Federalism and conjure up Powers - Essay ExampleThe original federal g all overnment not only had little authority over confederate tell aparts and their activities such as commerce, the system had no court system and taxation powers. Essentially, the confederation was a loose union of policy-makingly sovereign political sciences, with each state having a free hand in regulating own commercial activities and having independent courts structures. The hindrances of the fragmented nature of the disposal with respect to national political and economic growth soon dawned on many Americans. As such, a reevaluation was thus necessary and so a Constitutional Convention was called in 1787 to restructure the government and harmonize functioning of the national and state economies. Finally, the Great Compromise was struck paving the way for federalism as the basis for governmental control. In the inwardness of the US Constitution, Federalism is a dual system of sovereignty in which power was to be split among the central government and state governments. The agreement set fourth the United States Constitution as the haughty righteousness of the land with elaborate federal power system of sh atomic number 18d responsibilities. (U.S. Const., Art. VI, cl. 2). Both levels of governments were to have a direct influence over the US citizenry through officials and enacted laws in both levels of governance. Noteworthy, changes in the constitutions establishment the conduct of both the federal and state governments had to be consultative to promote magnanimity referred to in the spiffing laws. Articles I to VI of the supreme law basically define powers of the national government putting restrictions on what states spheres of influence. Accordingly, only the national government has authority to coin money, govern Indian tribes, conduct foreign relations, stick out armies and a navy and declare war whenever necessary. Concerning the court system hitherto a thorn in fron t the ratification of the constitution, only the Supreme Court was elaborately named in the US Constitution. Establishment of other federal courts fell under the powers of Congress. Declared under Article VI of the Constitution, the US constitution is the supreme law governing every aspect of governance in the entire nation. It apportions certain distinct powers to the federal government (enumerated powers) effectively restricting state powers to avoid conflict of interest. However, it also reserved other powers to the respective states (literally know as reserved powers). While State governments derive their authority from the people as outlined in their respective constitutions, the ratification of the United States Constitution basically transferred certain powers to the federal government effectively limiting state powers with respect to certain areas of policy action. According to the Tenth Amendment, all powers not delegated to the federal government nor prohibited to the sta tes were retained by the states. Accordingly, states retained police power to enact laws governing health and safety, and those require to enhance economic welfare of the citizenry. Both levels of governments hold overlapping powers in certain areas. In general, issues regarding populace security in terms of crime control, education, public health services, transport systems, and the general infrastructure are primarily state responsibilities. Nevertheless, all of these

Monday, April 29, 2019

My opinion about Alternative Worlds Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

My eyeshot about Alternative Worlds - Article ExampleMegatrends describe the major and progressive changes that provide define and bring about the world in the near future. The world in 2030 will certainly be a pot different than the world at present as different factors, including singles position, ownership of tycoon, demography, and availability of food, water and energy, would subscribe changed. According to the article, the major trends in the near future are likely to concern individual empowerment, dispersion of power, demographic patterns, and growing food, water and energy nexus. Each of these megatrends is discussed as below.Individual Empowerment refers to the individualistic power that tidy sum in future are likely to possess as compared to the present. In the next 15 to 20 years, the level of poverty is likely to reduce thus causing a rise in the number of people categorised as middle class in the entire world. Also, such people would be more educated, have acce ss to modern communications and manufacturing technologies, as well as dwell in a world with better health-care facilities. This trend is significant as it determines the amount of power that an individual possesses. Unlike the present where individual power is limited, this trend will give people much ordain in matters that affect them.Diffusion of power describes power shift from powerful states such as linked States and Europe, to other emerging economies in the world such as China and Brazil, and finally to non-state groups or coalitions. As other economies grow, it will be difficult for some few states such as the U.S. to assume inwardness power. In addition, emergence of groups that own most factors of production and communication networks will cause power to come on shift from states to amorphous coalitions. This trend is significant as powerful states such as United States will lost much of the power to the other players in global leadership.The third megatrend is in de mographic patterns and this describes the base and the nature of the

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Discussion Boards Questions 5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Discussion Boards Questions 5 - Essay ExampleIts excessively a field where people determine what they want to earn and the benefits they want to enjoy from their employers. With this in mind, I was determined to follow my ambition and resigned from my previous position.Following Jesus implies accepting him as the forgiver of sins and thenceforth following his slipway by living a righteous life that is in line with his teachings. It is a journey with both joyful and challenging moments that involves life time commitment. A new Christian should try guidance from spiritual leaders, read the word of God as well as interact with crack believers for him or her to grow spiritually.Olympics are international sporting events that attract audience across the world. One of the ways that the managers of Olympics emulate to create strong awareness is the use of advertising through amicable sites. One of the central 2012 London Olympics commercials that motivated me to visit their social med ia sites was the use of torch relay that was undertaken from May 19 to July 27. By the use of colored images and young athletes, the commercial was a symbol of peace, love and unity that the world should emulate. Having been sponsored by Coca-Cola Company, the Olympics flame was a success in the sense that it attracted large number of audience across numerous countries in the world. Many people decided to visit London while others viewed the Olympics via their television sets in their homes or in the street of the big cities across UK and other countries.Coca cola is leading worldwide drunkenness company with wide range of products that can be consumed by people regardless of their age and social status from rural and urban areas. It has brands that compete among themselves. In one of its commercials, Coca-Cola depicts young people playing basketball game but once one of their friends appears drinking a Sprite brand, the young people in the basketball field stops to play and run towards the young person who was taking sprite. This is a

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Week 14 Experiential Exercise Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Week 14 Experiential Exercise - Essay typesetters caseings had changed significantly in the field of tradeing since she first entered it, but the steps to creating a marketing excogitate remain essentially intact, though they are now somewhat more than difficult and require more ingenuity. For instance, the first thing that matchless does when creating a marketing plan is member the audience. An organization ahs to have a very clear picture of who they are trying to reach, who they are not trying to reach, and how to divide up groups within their target audience. For instance, hotels spend a great deal of their time and effort trying to market themselves towards business travelers, a demographic that obviously uses hotels a great deal. But this does not constitute a homogenous group high power brokers are going to want different things than a scummy level sales person in town for a day people who need to take a breather somewhere for weeks want different things than those wh o can be in and out quickly.So it is essential to segment the market and identify who you want to reach and reach them how best you can. Now there are more opportunities for marketing than ever, ranging from traditional media such as print ads to youtube ads and other social media. I was told that age constitutes a significant difference in social media use, but this seems to be slowly fading with time though young users outnumber old, more and more middle age and retirement age users are employ social media. One important note that was driven home to me is to treat marketing plans like an enthronement the key is not how many people you reach, but how efficiently spent marketing money is. Thus, one might, for instance, have to determine whether it would be better to buy minutes upon minutes of television ads in various markets, trying to entice small business travelers and entrepreneurs, or to rather spend less money to zap out and meet a procurement executive and a large corpor ation, and try to get that bon ton to go with your hotel as their standard choice when

Friday, April 26, 2019

Marks and Spencer Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4250 words

label and Spencer - Case Study ExampleThe other crossroads that are sold by the friendship include flowers, hampers and drinks such(prenominal) as wine. The company offers financial services to its customers like providing account cards, personal loans, building block trusts managements, life assurance schemes as well as pension policies to its customers. The company is subdivided into three divisions and they are coupled Kingdoms retail, International retail and the financial services division (Megone, and Robinson, 2002).In the United Kingdoms retail division, the management sells assorted kinds of merchandise .This division is sub divided into business units that include womens wear, mens wear, childrens wear, beauty items, home furnishings as well as food items. The International retail business is categorized into three geographical areas such as Europe, North America and the Far East. The European international retail business is further on divided into Continental Euro pe, Republic of Ireland and European franchise businesses. In North America, the group operates two types of businesses such as Brooks Brothers and Kings Supermarkets. The Far East consists of 10 stores that store the products of the company that are later on sold to the customers. The financial services offered by the company to its customers include account cards, personal loans, unit trusts as well as life assurance and pension policies.The suitable organizational structure for this company is that of the matrix organizational structure. This structure involves arranging its activities according to the employees function and products. The structure kindle combine the best functions and product structures within an organization. Functional organizations are organized according to the technological disciplines. A functional coach is commonly appointed so as to allocate the resources within the organization in the appropriate way .The coordination of activities place be underta ken through following the laid down procedures, detailed specifications, and ensuring that meetings are held on a standard basis. Products that require specialized knowledge consists of functional organized structures.On the other hand, a product bus is charged with the responsibility of coordinating the product creation activities through liaising with the functional representatives of the organization. The major tasks of the product manager are to collect information, solve conflicts and enhance the facilitation of objectives of the organization are achieved within a stipulated plosive of time. The employees are expected to accomplish their tasks as required so as to exploit their potentials as well as be in a position to increase the sales returns of the company. They are also expected to rede the factors that have been hindering them from accomplishing the tasks that have been assigned to them. The importance of this kind of structure is that the management of the company ca n be in a better position to focus on the market segment gum olibanum be in a position to meet the needs of the customers with ease. There is also an element of aspiration between the divisions as they try to achieve the objectives that have been set for them to meet within a stipulated period of time.The divisions within the organization can be controlled with ease since they act on different profit centers of the organization.Marks and Spencer Company sells different kinds of products to the customers thus the product manag

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Relationship Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Relationship market - Essay ExampleConsumer behavior is rapidly ever-changing in today s world. Most of this changing behavior stems from rapidly evolving technology and its growing importance in our life. The emergence of Web 2.0 has also make it possible. It has helped pave way for door to content driven information which could either make ones business or bring it down. frankincense technology has a strong relationship with consumer behavior and in conclusion its impact on the purchasing behavior of customers. Social networking sites have opened new paradigms in merchandise and relational marketing. Most social networking sites, for instance facebook are educational model tools that voice out what that box of people wants. Models like yahoo, msn and other search engines have come up before but could neer generate the community like feeling. Today companies are very accessible to the consumers because people are public lecture back to back with them.Other factors have also a ffected relational marketing.With the advent of the retailing era, products and price alone can non target customers. Customers who enter a throw in with the advent of purchasing might return drop off handed due to a number of factors. Though one of the factors is the unavailability of the products they need but in that respect are a number of factors which might deter them. They include not being able to descry the product, being unsure about the product because the line atmosphere doesnt allow them to judge it right on and being uncomfortable in the interpose. The store might not appeal to them and the shopping experience is not as convenient as they would like it to be and they leave in order to buy that rectify shopping experience.... (D Walters and D White, 1987). It involves communicating a positive product image to the customer and also ensuring that the customer decodes it well thus leading to positive behavioral outcome leading to purchase. The basic aim of the reta iler is to trigger a customer to make a purchase. For this three major steps are to be followed. The first one should cause the customer to enter the shop. This can be caused by the shops exterior including both(prenominal) the exterior landscape, the board and the window presentation. The second effort is made to retain the customer in the store for as long as possible which is attained by making the ambience pleasing and the store comfortable. The third and the decision making process of buying is greatly affected by the product display and availability which is ensured by clean products on display in an efficient manner. The interior design of the store can greatly affect the customers psychologically, lowering their defenses and removing their doubts, encourage them to make purchases and maintain interest in the store. (Kotler, 1974). Thus all marketers are unanimous in agreeing with the fact that store design is one of the main factors behind customer store choice decisions. Other factors include pricing, distance and size of the outlet. Previously the emphasis was on the display of the products but now marketers also have to lay emphasis on the elements which excite the senses of the shoppers. ofttimes used elements are smells, lighting, flat screen videos and graphics and flooring (McGoldrick, 1990) Visual merchandising involves using 4 basic design elements namely lighting, cleanliness, design layout and product display. These are also called orienting factors, signage and atmospherics by

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Article Rebuttal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Article Rebuttal - screen ExampleThe visible horizons of Mr. Mackey are one dimensional and lack a sense of ethics. His argument is weak since he does not provide any empirical evidence that philanthropy is bad for business.My perspective regarding this issue is the have it away opposite of Mr. Mackey. As a guest anytime I entrance a company donating money to a good cause such as founding hunger I get excited some the initiate. The good deed stays in my mind and when I go shopping if I see any products produced by that company I am inclined towards supporting the firm. The use of social certificate of indebtedness adds value to the brand of a corporation. John Mackey seems to believe that the only purpose of going into business is do money. He fails to realize that each corporation has a different reason for existence. The man that was once the richest psyche in the world, Bill Gates, has donated billions of dollars generated by Microsoft towards social causes. The company is still the market leader in the packet industry. Shareholders do not mind when a company that is profitable shares some of the wealth with the less fortuitous members of our society.John Mackey went as far as saying that donating money towards social causes is stealing money from the investors. This view is completely biased and does not represent the views of the majority of businesspeople in the United States and abroad. I moot that by making these absurd statements Mr. Mackey is the one that is decreasing the shareholder value of the company. As a customer I would not support any company with a management team that has such a greedy perspective in life. There are many problems our global society is facing. The majority of the worlds wealth is not in the hands of the 210 governments of the world. The private corporations have hundreds of trillions of dollars in wealth. Our society depends on the generosity and good intentions of the corporate world. In the United States corpo rations can deduct up to 5% of crystallize income if they

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Hazardous Material Management and Hazard Communication Essay - 2

Hazardous Material Management and Hazard Communication - Essay utilizationNegligence is the primary cause of physical dangers. The most frequent physical shams at a local gas station include flak catchers, fuel spillage and electrical accidents. Carelessness at gas place has led to explosions and fires that extend to another property. Electrical hazards could be in the form of improper wiring and break cords. Combination of electrical hazards and careless fuel handling is very detrimental.Chemical hazards include combustible and combustible gasoline and petrol. Local gas stations that have no standard safety measures for handling such(prenominal) products often risk explosions and fires (Bajcar et al., 2014). Lack of professionalism in handling fuels is dangerous. For instance, over filling leading to spillage or smoking at gas stations may cause fire.Natural hazards have no part of human involvement. The hazards are unpredictable and have devastating effects. Notably, natura l hazards worsen already existing environmental hazards. For instance, excess solar radiation can generate enough heat to cause an explosion of gases at local stations.Fires at gas stations primarily arise from misbehaviour (Anejionu, Blackburn & Whyatt, 2015). People who create fire accidents are normally negligent and handle fuel products carelessly. For example, failure to follow manufacturers instructions, overfilling or keeping the engine on while fuelling is a risk. Apparently, human disorganization facilitates hazards particularly in situations where the hazard is difficult to control. Stopping fires is sometimes hard because of inadequate emergency protocols or incompetency.Anejionu, O. C., Blackburn, G. A., & Whyatt, J. D. (2015). Detecting gas flares and estimating blaze up volumes at individual flow stations using MODIS data. Remote Sensing Of Environment, 15881-94. doi10.1016/j.rse.2014.11.018Bajcar, T., Cimerman, F., & irok, B. (2014). Model for numeric risk assessmen t on naturally ventilated metering-regulation stations for natural gas.

Monday, April 22, 2019

Advanced Management Accounting - Total Quality Management (TQM) Assignment

Advanced Management Accounting - Total Quality Management (TQM) - Assignment Exampletion dynamics, offer up an insight into the advantages that can be enacted through its integration, the possible drawbacks of T.Q.M and the considerations that need to be taken into account in case of its implementation, and finally, providing recommendations about its application with context to Spearhead Ltd.Reduced profits and shrinking in the meshing has brought about realization towards implementing quality system. T.Q.M being the front runner amongst quality systems has been suggested for implementation.T.Q.M is acronym for Total Quality management. As the name would imply, it pertains to quality management. Further dissection of the meaning would provide an insight into the nature and domain of operational dexterity it entails. It refers to integrating quality mechanism in the every discipline and every domain of the organizational mental synthesis (MUKHERJEE, 2006, p. 393).Since Spearhead Ltd is faced with fiscal sink age, the addressing of different argonas is required. T.Q.M would enable this. The low productivity in the financial sector impacts the clients satisfaction as well as the overall mood of the organization. Citing this, T.Q.M will enable project a strategy that would enable overcoming the financial constraints.The domains of T.Q.M are not just limited to particular processes quite it takes into account the working methods of the employees. The behaviour of the employees towards goals accomplishment along with the aptitude towards accomplishment of the goals and targets set forth. The focus of wariness is the activities and the items used at bottom as well. The use of the right of tools and techniques towards the accomplishment of tasks also entails the domain and consideration within a T.Q.M integrated system.Spearhead Ltd must look into the areas where wastes are high in percentage .The wastes are defined as those items, products and activities that do not add any value to the organizational activity or overall output. They in turn

Should liberalist states promote their policies abroad Is force a Essay

Should bigist states assist their policies abroad Is force a legitimate cats-paw in securing these goals - Essay ExampleThe questions asked argon is liberalism re solelyy a bad ideology that it has to be forced on other nations and how can the citizens of various nations benefit from liberalism? This paper supports the notion that liberalist states should promote their policies abroad but force should not be used as a legitimate instrument in securing these goals. Policy making was largely influenced by liberalists in the twentieth century. The liberalists influenced Public opinion and their liberal views were embraced as they gave the people hope for having free elections, religious freedom, free press, free markets, associational pluralism, free stool and many other associated benefits. However, with the First foundation War, liberal views subsided but after the Second World War, in that location was revival of liberal views marked by the establishment of United Nations. The cold war power government activity extinguished liberalism again but in the 1990s there was a beacon of hope as the Western countries announced the establishment of a pertly world order (Dunne 1). The leaders who came up with the new world order gave their justifications why the world should embrace liberalism over other ideologies but after the World Trade Centre was destroyed by a terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, America seemed to fury liberalism and embraced realism. The United States of America and its counterparts have attempted to solidify power around them and decided to seek avenging among their perceived enemies and the nations that sympathize with them. The paper expounds on the matter, showing liberalism to be founded on temperateness, compromise, moderation, and peace while realists stress to introduce a common power in order to achieve progress, justice and law (Dunne 2). For a long period, liberalism has been utilized to depict abroad range of practices, id eas, movements, and parties in various societies. It was mainly used to play off the systems of governance that were oppressive and denied the citizens some privileges. Liberalism was used as a force of liberation for the people to draw free initiatives from existing governments. When used as a political philosophy, liberalism can either refer to singular rights shared by liberals or basic principles of constitutional authorities. Classical liberals advocated for liberty, the segmentation of political powers, economic freedom, rights to birth property, freedom of speech and thoughts, independent civil societies and religious liberty. Egalitarian aspects have influenced modern democratic liberalism in addition to the other aspects that classical liberalists advocated for, thus social equality serving as the foundation of contemporaneous liberal politics (Starr 34). Liberalism can be defined in four dimensions, which look into its different aspects. Firstly, when relating to the law, all the citizens are equal, meaning that they are equally bound by the law and bear basic rights to religious toleration, education, and free press among other rights. Secondly, the legislative body of a nation can only figure authority vested in it by the citizens and is not permitted to abuse their rights. Thirdly, an individual has the right to property ownership and profitable forces. Fourthly, liberalism identifies the free, market driven economic exchange system as the most effective and disparages market systems that are controlled and regulated bureaucratically. When one considers these four

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Benhams Manufacturing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Benhams Manufacturing - establish ExampleThis will impact on increasing the revenue of the corporation. The same will happen if Benhams manufacturing invests additive finances in their projects. This means that improvement of the status of key resource will work heighten the competitiveness of the company. In reference with the argument from different organizational philosophers, it is evident that the level of expected convergence from employees is extremely valuable in driving in all some other resources (Lloyd-Jones & Lewis 2008). This is the reason behind the growing consequence of creating a competition advantage through employee educate and development. The practice is quite expensive, but the resultant product focuses on long term benefits (Sadler 2011).Benhams manufacturing can highly benefit from training in reference with the in a higher place argument. Among the outstanding training, sectors in finance is cost. The training will also over the challenge related t o clearcutness in production. If employees learn on the benefit of minimizing cost, both direct and indirect, the company will reduce overheads among other costs. This will have a significant impact on the company following the reduction of expenses (Sadler 2011). Denying employees the lay on the line to access new information that relates to their line of specialization is a dangerous strategy. This will make the company lag behind as their skills do not meet those of the current market, thus not competitive. However, the training process is expensive, and this negatively affects the companys growth and development. Money that could have been used for the companys upgrading is directed to the training program.It a time consuming procedure, and this results to a downfall in the amount of make produced by the company. Working hours are scheduled for the training program, and this automatically reflects in the returns. Scheduling time for all employees to

Saturday, April 20, 2019

The Sense of Casualness marking the 17th Century English Slave Trade Essay

The Sense of Casualness marking the 17th Century English Slave manage - Essay ExampleThe narrator comes aside as a shrewd European trader, who on the iodine locating is perturbed by the competitive tactics evinced by the traders from other European nations, and on the other view is harrowed by the long negotiations he had to manage with the African intermediaries, war-lords, and feudal headmen. The prime concern of the narrator is to steady-going young and strong African break ones backs at the right price and at the right time and one(a) scarcely finds this bet beingness marked by whatever emotional interjections or moralistic pangs on the part of the writer. The entire process presented in the narrative is astutely mattered of fact and demarcation like. Thereby, the account presents a realistic picture of the systematic and extensive nature of the African slave trade, which comes out as being a well engrained economic activity in the coastal communities in Africa. T he European slave traders sure as shooting preferred to maintain amicable and cordial relations with the African feudal lords and the intermediaries name by them so as to assure the success and safety of their business operations.If one studies the given account in the light-headed of the intellectual and moral progress registered by the 17th century Europe, one stands evidently amazed and baffle at the fact that a civilization that tended to be the cradle of the best of view and progress, happened to be so callous about trading in human beings, preferring to keeping the African slave trade unloved of any human or ethical considerations. ... The European traders traded in African slaves without giving in to any moral or ethical pangs, being more concerned about the fortunes to be accrued from the transatlantic demand for cheap manpower. The narrator comes out as a shrewd European trader, who on the one side is perturbed by the competitive tactics evinced by the traders from ot her European nations, and on the other side is harrowed by the long negotiations he had to manage with the African intermediaries, war lords and feudal headmen. The prime concern of the narrator is to secure young and strong African slaves at the right price and at the right time and one scarcely finds this account being marked by any emotional interjections or moral pangs on the part of the writer. The entire process presented in the narrative is astutely matter of fact and business like. Thereby, the account presents a realistic picture of the systematic and extensive nature of the African slave trade, which comes out as being a well engrained economic activity in the coastal communities in Africa. The European slave traders for certain preferred to maintain amicable and cordial relations with the African feudal lords and the intermediaries appointed by them so as to assure the success and safety of their business operations. If one studies the given account in the light of the i ntellectual and moral progress registered by the 17th century Europe, one stands simply amazed and nonplussed at the fact that a civilization that tended to be the cradle of the best of thought and progress, happened to be so callous about trading in human beings, preferring to keeping the African slave trade bereft of any human or ethical considerations. In that sense one certainly finds a

Friday, April 19, 2019

Man in the middle and secrity in multichannel Essay

patch in the middle and secrity in multichannel - Essay ExampleHence, the fervidnesser makes two systems believe that they are converse to one another while the attacker controls and modifies the communicated messages. The attacker achieves this by splitting the original TCP federation into two new connections and acting as a proxy where it can read, insert, and modify the data in the intercepted communication. The manhood in the middle is unauthorized and attacks in real time. The attack can occur in two ship canal. It can occur where the attacker controls a router along the normal point of traffic communication between two communicating systems. It can also occur where the attacker is located on the equivalent broadcast domain with one of the systems.The attacker uses several tools like packet creator, Ettercap, Cain e Abel and Dsniff that are efficacious in LAN networks. The tools manifest Arp spoof capabilities that that permit interceptions. The man in the middle can att ack and modify a HTTP because the HTTP traffic is unencrypted and contains no authentication. It can also attempt to intercept HTTPS traffic by using a custom certificate. The attacker uses proxy tools like Paros Prox and Proxy Fuzz to move with HTTP protocol (OWASP, 2009, p.1). The man in the middle attack takes advantage of weak network communication protocols to lead a host to route the information through the attacker instead of through the normal router. However, the man in the middle attack is also affirmative in developing a step of a web application and in creating Web Vulnerability assessments.Because of these attacks, the computer technological sector has derived various ways to secure to the communications in the systems in Multichannel and Multi-level Authentication security protocols. To ensure data integrity and spring authenticity between devices such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) whose owners has no past

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Evidence-based practice in nursing Research Paper

Evidence-based dress in nursing - Research physical composition ExampleThe motivators for evidence-based recital in nursing, in addition called evidence-based nursing (EBN), come from political, professional and societal factors (McSherry et al., 2006 cited in Scott & McSherry, 2009, p.1085). This study explores the pros and cons of evidence-based practice in nursing. It analyzes the concepts of clinical expertness, longanimous preferences, and caring in the context of evidence-based nursing. It also examines the impact of these practices on the art of nursing as a practice. Pros and Cons of Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing Evidence-based practices, when applied to nursing, can erect patient outcomes by improving clinical decisions (Scott & McSherry, 2009, p.1087). Evidence-based practice is a combination of patient values and clinical conditions with the best research evidence in clinical decision making (Brown et al., 2010, p.1945). Patient preferences are also used in mak ing decisions. The processes of evidence-based practices concern practical steps that maximize the best evidence. Evidence-based practice starts with postulation an answerable question in a specific clinical situation, collecting the best relevant evidence, critically evaluating the evidence, and using the evidence in consideration of patient preferences in clinical decision-making (Brown et al., 2010, p.1945). The systematic approach in finding and evaluating the best evidence is critical to producing quality patient results (Scott & McSherry, 2009, p.1087)... its framework (when and if it is defined and mandated by organizations) and authentic implementation (Rolfe, Segrott, & Jordan, 2008 Scott & McSherry, 2009). McKenna (2010) argued that evidence-based practices create confusion, because of the delimiting definition of evidence. Rolfe, Segrott, and Jordan (2008) studied nurses understanding and interpretation of evidence-based practice (EBP). Findings showed that tensions and contradictions in nurses understanding of evidence-based practice were prevalent. National and local guidelines, nurses own experiences and patients preferences continue to dominate the practice of nursing for their sampling. Brown et al. (2010) noted from their studies that personal and management barriers hinder the implementation of evidence-based practices. Evidence-based practice in nursing reduces the importance of soft approaches to nursing practice (McKenna, 2010). Paley (2006) examined the well-known concepts of expertise and clinical judgment, which evidence-based practice tend to undermine. For him, evidence-based practice should not overlook the value and enjoyment of clinical judgment in making quality patient decisions. He stressed clinical expertise is interpreted as that which is required in order to integrate the research evidence with professional experience, context, circumstances, patient preferences, various holistic considerations, and so on (p.87). Kitson (1 997) suggested that evidence-based practices cannot be simply transferred directly to individual components of health attending (i.e. nursing and midwifery) and merely translating evidence-based management as evidence-based practices in nursing may be inaccurate without changing some elements that underlie the conceptual framework of evidence-based practices

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Marketing Plan Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words - 1

Marketing Plan - Research Paper faceThis discussion will also involve market objective setting, target market analysis, such as segmentation, targeting and positioning, selling strategies and illustration of market mix elements. Finally, the study will properly evaluate the process of marketing plan implementation, budgeting and controlling.orchard apple tree Inc. is one of the leading global technology companies which is specialized in underdeveloped, designing and marketing of consumer electronics. Their product line includes iPhone, iPod, iPad, Macbook etc. Apart from the ironware the scheme is also specialized in developing and designing various software products and online services. The business was established in 1976. Headquarter of the organization is situated in Cupertino, calcium (Apple Inc. 2015a). The organization has secured the second largest position across the world as an Information Technology company in terms of their revenue while the top position is secured by Samsung Electronics. Alternatively, Apple Inc. has been entitled as the tercet largest company as a Smartphone maker. The value of the organization is approximately $500 billion. By the end of 2014, the organization has recorded annual revenue of $182 billion (Kraemer, et al., 2011).The analysis of the current situation of the organization will expand the micro environment as well as macro environment of the business. The analysis of 5 Cs of marketing such as company, collaborators, customers, competitors and climate, provides detailed understanding regarding the micro as well as macro environment of the business (Wilson and Gilligan, 2012).Product ranges The organization provides a wide range of technology products that includes hardware software and online services. The products and services of the organization mainly include iPhone, iPad, iPod, Macbook, iTune, Mac App Store, iCloud and application software (Marketline, 2014).This is the Smartphone range of Apple Inc. which i ncludes the

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Human Development Essay Example for Free

Human Development seeTaking a look at the Human Development Index map of Africa, which force out be seen on (http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Development_Index) on the web it shows that many of Africas countries be very under positive.7 One of the open-and-shut reasons for why countries is Africa argon underachieving is because of how poor is the strength of their economy compared to early(a)s. As it is well known, Africa is very exuberant in mineral resources as many other states rely upon their, possessing nigh of the known minerals types of the world. Africas economy is more than(prenominal) reliant on floriculture than that of any other continent, with close to 60% of Africans working in the agricultural sector.Secondly, the economic development of or so all African nations has been hindered by inadequate postation systems. Most countries rely on road networks that are composed largely of dirt roads, which become impassable during the rainy seasons. Road networ ks run away to link the home(a) of a country to the coast few road systems link adjacent countries.9 To show how poor and how mentally ill economy crisis is in Africa, one ought to take a look at their food crisis and the growing start of food imports. Whereas Africa imported an average volume of 1.96 million metric tons of agricultural products in the long time 1961-63, by 1980-82 this figure had risen to 11.2 million metric tons at an annual value of oer $6.8 billion (over one-seventh of the total value of Africas imports in 1982).Owing to foreign exchange constraints, most African countries cast off had to rely increasingly on food aid to meet their imported food commandments.10The commercial sectors of most African states rely heavily on one or a few export commodities. The bulk of trade occurs with industrialized nations, which require raw materials and sell industrial and consumer goods. Trade between African states is limit by the competitive, rather than complementar y, nature of their products and by trade barriers, such as tariffs, and the diversity of currencies.Looking at the economy of europium, a sharp contrast in strength and influence can visibly be seen. Europe has long been a world leader in economic activities. As the birthplace of new science and of the Industrial Revolution, Europe acquired technological superiority over the rest of the world, which gave it unquestioned dominance in the 19th Century. An important impetus for growth since the mid-20th Century has been the formation of supranational organisations such as the European Union, the European Free Trade Association, and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.Unlike Africa, Europe has extremely developed transport systems, which are densest in the central part of the continent. Many countries in Europe use well retained transportation systems to transport important goods such as water transport which plays a major employment in the European economy. A lmost all European countries maintain national airlines, and several, such as transmission line France, British Airways, Swissair, Germany, and Netherlands are major worldwide carriers.13 Looking at both economies and trade, it is unquestionably obvious that Europe conducts substantial international trade compared to Africa. For Europe, much of its trade is intra-continental, especially among members of the European Union, but also engages in large-scale trade with countries of other continents. Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy and the Netherlands are among the worlds greatest trading nations. A large persona of European inter-continental trade involves the exporting of manufactured goods and the importing of raw materials.Europes agricultural sector is generally highly developed, especially in Western Europe. The agricultural sector in Europe is helped by the Common boorish Policy, which provides farmers with a minimal price for their products and subsidized their exports, which increases competitiveness for their products. This policy is highly controversial as it hampers poverty-stricken trade worldwide (protectionism sparks protectionism from other countries and trade blocs the concept of trade wars) and is violating the concept of fair trade.15 Africas economy is more reliant on primary products (i.e, agricultural and mineral) than that of any other continent, with around 60% of Africans working in the agricultural sector.About three fifths of African farmers are subsistence farmers tilling small pots of land to feed their families, with single a minimal surplus that can be sold for other goods.16 However, on that point are satisfying number of large farms that grow cash crop such as coffee, cotton, cocoa, and rubber these farms, normally operated by large corporations, cover tens of square kilometres and employ large number of labourers.Africas geography is unsuited to trade and gum olibanum hampers its economy. The centre of the continent, at least on the western side, is an almost impenetrable rainforest that greatly impedes the jump of people of goods. Some of the wealthiest parts of South Africa are blocked from the rest of Africa by the Kalahari Desert, while the Sahara creates an obvious barrier to trade. While Africa has a number of great river systems such as those of the Nile, Niger, Congo, and Zambezi, it is not nearly as well-linked rivers as are other areas such as Europe. Moreover, many of the rivers are blocked by rapids and cataracts that require vast development projects if they are to be bypassed.The wetness of the roads and tracks makes transport difficult and hazardous. In concomitant Africa is break up off from the sea to a greater extent than any other continent. To enforce even more problems to Africa there is an increasing amount of desertification occurring in Africa where the deserts, especially the Sahara are becoming larger, enveloping area around them, leaving less space for land. This pr ocess is partly due to the deforestation of areas of forest with no grow to hold soil in place, it blows away leaving an infertile desert.Europe has a well developed pecuniary sector. Many European cities are financial centres with the City of London being the largest.19 The European financial sector is helped by the introduction of the euro as common currency. This has made it easier for European households and firms to invest in companies and set up on banks in other European countries as exchange rate fluctuations are now non-existent in Europe. As mentioned above, Europes economy is superior to that of Africa, so what can Africa do to modify its economy or possibly what can it take from the Europe economy as a model.Professor J A. van Ginkel held a conference on the Knowledge and Development in Africa here he talked about ways to improve Africas economy however not only by getting the economic policies right.20 Prof van Ginkel mentions that there is now substantial evidence that institutional weakness in many African countries is a critical obstacle to economic performance.21 From the surveys he conducted on the obstacles to business in Africa it highlights the damage caused by the unpredictability of changes in laws and policies, the unreliability of law enforcement, and the impact of corrupt bureaucracies.22 Unless governments eliminate these kinds of obstacles then it is unlikely that the economy whether it is just topically in certain parts of Africa or on a national front will flourish.An reflection of the Europe model that Africa can learn from is the aspect of knowledge. No commodity is more expensive than knowledge. An Africa without a sustainable, strong knowledge sector of its own will always remain in a perilously dependent position. Research and training institutions on the continent can make a critical component part in at least three ways by making the most of existing autochthonous knowledge by accessing the vast reservoir of exist ing global knowledge, as well as the ongoing advances in understanding, and adapting them to suit specific local conditions and by helping to find innovative origins to seemingly unregenerate problems.23 In terms of human resources, it was highlighted in the Seminars of Anticipation that African developments suffers from a tragic paradox on the one hand, elites trained in Western world are too many (and most of them quench in the US or in the EU because they cannot find well-paid qualified positions in Africa, or because their skills do not correspond to African needs) while on the other hand the well-trained intermediate executives required to recognise a modern economy are cruelly missing in Africa (higher technical experts, management executives, civilised administrators).To conclude, this essay has looked the economies of both Europe and Africa and compared and contrast both of them. It has also provided information about both economies in terms of trade and finance. A brie f history was provided which looked at the relationship between Europe and Africa and to the years of colonisation. Reasons as to why both regions are on different levels economically were provided to show how dominant and rich Europe was and how poor and underdeveloped Africa was. The Africa food crisis was mentioned to give an account of how poor Africa was against other regions. In addition ways that Africa can improve their economy thus bringing it more power and strength so that it can compete with other regions was provided, for example making sure Africa had the aqeduate education so that it learn.Many Africans croak to the west so that they can have higher education which is not available in Africa and tend to stay there once they have completed their studies. This is detrimental to Africas development and thus a solution to the problem would be to support the creation of a complete curriculum. This would lead to a massive parcel to the development of vocational and techn ical education in Africa thus improving Africas economy. So as it can seen, the economies for both Europe and Africa are at this present time in contrast to each other but there is hope for Africa to become more dominant and influential in world personal matters if the correct adjustments and policies are introduced to improve them.ReferencesFawcett, L., Hurrell, A., Regionalism in World Politics, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1995, pg 43Ravenhill. J, Africa in economic crisis, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1986, pg 9www.ciaonet.org/isa/rajo

Monday, April 15, 2019

The elderly man Essay Example for Free

The elderly man quizMy response to situation number four is not to charge the elderly man. First and foremost, a prosecuting officers duty entails determining what cases should be prosecuted. In effect, this means, acting as a strainer. This means that decisions are based on several factors such as limited resources, difficulty in enforcement, and not to remark political and public pressures In deciding against prosecution, the following factors were taken into consideration age, public interest, and rehabilitation from imprisonment.From the reputation of the case and the age of the accused, there would be little reason to imprison him. In addition, looking at the factual circumstances surrounding the commission of the crime, there is little reason to do so. The fact that he immediately turned himself in shows his understanding of right and wrong, in the same breath making a choice to commit such wrong to free his wife from her disease. Moreover, I took media attention in consideration. universe published on the front page of a newspaper indicates a high public in the case, which is the very basis for enacting laws.The article will elicit two kinds of reaction from the public. The first reaction is ostracise in that people would disagree to the act of ending his wifes life, but the other reaction could be an outpouring of intellect for an elderly man who only wanted his wifes torment to end. To quote the assigned text, in some situations, prosecuting attorneys do not charge because of an outpouring of public sympathy or support for the accused, perhaps because of the type of crime or identity of the victim. Furthermore, based on a study that looks at the prosecuting officer as operating in an exchange system, whether between the prosecutor and police officers or the courts, in which case considerations may include jail overcrowding and docket backlog, a prosecutor would think twice whether or not charges should be pressed. On the basis of the above reasons, taxpayers money would be better spent prosecuting individuals whose malicious or negligent actions have caused pain and suffering to the victims and their families.

Isolation in Hardys poems Nobody Comes and The Darkling Thrush Essay Example for Free

Isolation in robusts poems Nobody Comes and The dark Thrush EssayIn the poems The Darkling Thrush TDT and Nobody Comes NC, unafraid(p) presents two similar images of isolation. In two poems, the mental imagee are disjointed from human comp any, whilst venturous explores this using imagery of ghosts and the supernatural in both also. However, respectively there are differences in tone although NC ends upon as dire a note as it begins, stalwart engineers an optimistic outlook in TDT and suggests that the uses isolation may notHardy ensures that the persona of TDT is isolated from any other human presence or, until the poems leash stanza, any living organism. Whilst leaning against a coppice gate, he notes that all mankind had want their household fires. Although this is an indication of the low temperature, it is noticeable that the rest of humanity are makeking light in an otherwise dark environment reciprocally, the persona is deprived of both warmth and living comp any. To further this point, Hardy personifies non-human entities, such as frost and winter Winters dregs, for example. In this way, Hardy makes the proofreader personal not with living creatures but with in alert entities, isolating the animate persona even more.Indeed, Hardy makes such a division more striking by picturing the personas environment as very extreme. Surrounded by deathly imagery, the persona imagines the landscape as the Centurys corpse/ His crypt the canopy,/ The wind his death lament. Even Hardys animate entities seem religious Frost was spectre-gray and mankind haunted nigh. Such is the state of decay that even the ancient thrill of germ and birth was shrunken the regenerative power of life has itself died, leaving the persona as the sole animate existence.A similar loneliness can be seen in NC, especially towards the end of the poem. In the aftermath of the car passing, the persona observes, mute by the gate, that he stands again alone. The sudden silence a nd soft, impermanent t sound of mute in contrast to the onomatopoeic whangs amplifies the personas loneliness as does the empty assonance in the repeated a sound, in alone and again. Equally, the present filter out verb stands and again emphasizes that this is an ongoing and repeated state of isolation.However, the persona in Nobody Comes is not simply isolated in terms of being physically alone or the sole living creature he is also isolated from modernity. Hardy again uses supernatural imagery to explore this. The persona notes that The telegraph fit out intones like a spectral lyre/ Swept by a spectral hand. Rather than see the telegraph wire as a means of communication, the persona rejects it in presenting an image of disassociation the vagueness of the verb intones name an image of faceless voices.He also creates negative supernatural connotations there is an innate ghostliness nigh the archaic lyre juxtaposed to contrast with the innate modernity of the telegraph wire which is reinforced by the wraithlike spectral. Hardy repeats this for emphasis in spectral hand. In this phrase, he also creates an incongruity among the concrete verb swept and noun hand and the abstract concept of ghostliness the hand does not exist. Its unperceivable presence and visible effects are unnerving, making the modern telegraph wire an unpleasant image.The personas rejection of modernity can be seen also in the depiction of a car coming up. Having shone its aggressive lamps at full glare which Hardy emphasizes by placing at the end of the line the persona states that it has nothing to do with me. This maxim, in being so blunt, is very powerful. It operates to present a rift between the persona and the modern world and, given the unusually colloquial verb whangs, it fates that the car is viewed as a calloused representation of modern life from which the persona wishes to isolate himself. It leaves leaving a blacker air, which may indicate either a corruption of nature (in terms of polluting the otherwise fresh air) or a darken in the personas emotions. Indeed, the poem concludes with the same negativity, with the word nobody in both the claim and the last line. The persona is left again alone and isolated, prompting a large amount of generosity from the reader.By contrast, TDT concludes with a hopeful note. At the appearance of the thrush, in the third stanza, the reader notes that the shuttlecock is similarly isolated and surrounded by death. In truth, the readers initial reaction to the recovered frail, gaunt and small thrush is to question whether the creature will survive the bleak conditions. There is a intelligence of desperation present flinging its soul/ Upon the growing gloom. However, the persona notices some blessed Hope in the hoots happy good-night air. Although unaware of why this may be such joy illimited is darksome to the persona this leads the poem to end in an optimistic fashion. Although both the persona and t he thrush remain isolated from any other company (the persona fails to deeply associate with the bird) and the anxiety about the future lingers, Hardy does much to suggest that such deep rooted fervourlessness may change in TDTs persona, as opposed to the ongoing isolation present in NC.

Saturday, April 13, 2019

Violence in Sports - an Ethical Perspective Essay Example for Free

Violence in Sports an estimable Perspective EssayViolence in summercater has become far similarly commonplace. Aggressive gasconades such as footb each and hoc nominate involve many aggressive tactics moreover far too much do these aggressive tactics become overshadowed by deliberate acts of forcefulness with the intent to fix bodily harm to an opponent. Many original and non-profession athletes, as well as coaches, afford adapted the brain that winning is the common goal that all who participate in fun strive for and hence life that engaging in violent acts mend competing should be permitted in achieving this goal. In sport winning is what severally athlete strives for and seemingly they will consign in harmful acts of forcefulness to achieve their goal. Former capital of Massachu solidifyingts Bruins player David Forbes was quoted I just dont see, no matter how wrong the act is, how anything that happens in an athletic contest be vicious, (Gillespie). The mentality of being above the law that around captain athletes possess does not moreover affect the game in which they argon playing. Many athletes who execute corporal acts of violence while competing ar more prone to bankting such violent acts in their every sidereal day lives, most commonly domestic violence. Harvard Law Review).Spectator violence and hooliganism are also primarily conjugate to the violence fans observe during sporting events. (Williams). Also, victor and amateur sport has become an integral part of our g prejudiceiness and gild. Sports sess be seen or heard, in one form or another, at any clock of day or night. Professional athletes are amongst the most publicized people in the world. Thus, the words and actions of these athletes digest been commonly mistaken as notions of acceptable conduct.Therefore, people, especially children, who view these acts of excessive and dangerous violence often imitate the aggressive acts they too frequently observe fr om professional and amateur athletes. The core of these on passing play problems is the lack of, or far too feeble disciplinary actions assigned to players who commit unlawful acts of violence while competing in sport. League officials essential enforce harsh penalties for acts of violence during a sporting event. In more severe cases violence in sport should be transacted as a criminal matter, where perpetrators can be tried and convicted in civil court.This paper will discuss the affects that violence in sport has on our parliamentary procedure by discussing the sub branches of the Social Conflict scheme of sociology. In taking into custody the sociological affects of violence in sport it is possible to discuss how violence in sports affects our present day fraternity, which closely dos Socrates pattern in achieving an ideal state. In applying Socrates pattern in achieving an ideal state on with the psychological aspects of Platos cardinal virtues it will be possible to c ome to an on a lower floorstanding on how to rule reveal violence in sport.In conclusion, the paper will discuss why athletes, conscious of their actions or not, commit violent acts while competing by applying Psychologist Immanuel Kants Theory of Command Given by Reason. Unpunished acts of violence that occur while competing that goes without punishment eventually leads to violence acts while not competing. There demand been numerous accounts of athletes performing physical assault while not competing. The most prevalent form of violence carried out by athletes off the playing field is domestic violence.Football coach Joe Paterno of Penn State University was quoted Im going to go home.. nd beat up my wife after a pre-season loss (Harvard Law Review HLR, 1996 p. 1048). Many people construct speculated about why athletes are like plausibly to commit acts of domestic abuse. One of these speculations is that players such as enforcers train to use violence and intimidation on the field and whitethorn have difficulty preventing these lessons from carrying over into their personal relationships, (HLR, 1996 p. 1050).Another, more logical speculation is that sport has had a kind of sanctuary atmosphere to it in terms of the legal system and police have kept their distance, (Lapchick, 2000 p. ). For an athlete to be above the law simply because he or she is an athlete is irrational. However, the public has gotten fed up with athletes crossing the violent lines, both on and off the court, and that may apply to police entering the sanctuary, (Lapchick, 2000 p. 1). If indeed the police begin to get involved when acts of violence are performed by athletes on and off the court, violence and physical aggression may not be as commonplace in the future as they are today.Irrational as it may be for sport to have its own sanctuary atmosphere in terms of the legal system, we as a guild essential question why we lastly allow for this to occur. During the 2003- 2004 Natio nal Hockey League season Todd Bertuzzi of the Vancouver Canucks brutally attacked unsuspecting Colorado Avalanche forward Steve Moore. The attack left Moore with a broken neck which ultimately ended his NHL life. Although Bertuzzi was suspended for the remainder of the season and his team was fined $250,000 no criminal charges were laid.One can only wonder how an unprovoked attack on an unsuspecting victim which ultimately ended a career due to a broken neck cannot be treated as a criminal offense. The Bertuzzi nonessential is an ideal example which illustrates how our society allows professional athletes to advocate themselves above the law. The problem of violence in sport can be discussed using the sub branches of the Social Conflict Theory of sociology. The Social Conflict Theory of sociology deals with the ideology that the problems that society faces are the result of the way that society, as well as the economics of that society are organized.The sub branch of Social Confl ict Theory that gives support to the explanation to why we as a society put professional athletes above the law is The Marxist Theory. The Marxist Theory can also be broken down even further into Instrumental Marxism and Structural Marxism theories. The general set forth behind the two Marxist theories however are quite similar. Marxist sociologists view crime as an outcome of Capitalism. The upper sept, or the Bourgeoises, control all modes of production. It is this system that creates the division between the classes.The upper classes have all they need they are the wealthy class as well as the most tidy and influential. The lower class, or the Proletariat, on the other hand has virtually zilch. These are the people left with no power no influence and virtually nothing. The general concepts of the Marxist theory are that the laws are set up to protect the interests as well as maintain their financial standing while nothing is given to the lower classes or the poor. In our soci ety we view our professional athletes as the upper class or the Bourgeoises.Professional athletes are indeed wealthy, powerful and influential. Thus our current laws, according to the Marxist theories, are set up in a way to protect the interest of the upper class (including professional athletes) as well as not to ruin their social status. The Marxist Theories provide an explanation of how professional athletes, such as Todd Bertuzzi, can carry out intentional acts of violence and not be prosecuted while if others who are not part of the upper class (the Proletariat) were to carry out the same act of violence would be prosecuted in a civil court.Therefore, to eliminate violence in sport our society must not allow subcultures, ice hockey for an example, to follow a different set of laws than the rest of society. Today our society is divided into many different classes. There is the upper class, the upper-middle class, middle class and so forth. Our present day society closely follow s Socrates pattern in achieving an ideal state. Socrates pattern divides society into collar classes. The first of the three are the workers, craftsmen, farmers, shopkeepers ect. Another class is the auxiliaries or warriors, and the third class is the guardians or rulers.Each man in the state go bads in one or another of these classes. However to simply divide a society into three classes in an attempt to achieve an ideal state seems slightlywhat implausible. Plato believed that every man must possess the cardinal virtues to live a unplayful live. These virtues cognition, temperance, justice and bravery are essential in living a good life and therefore are essential in achieving an ideal state. These virtues however can be applied not only to everyday life, but also to subcultures, such as hockey or football. Plato believes for a state to be ideal it must possess wisdom.The concept of wisdom is understanding ones self and controlling self. If professional or amateur athletes w ere to possess the virtue of wisdom they ultimately possess self control. To say an athlete committed an act of violence unintentionally or because he or she was caught up in the game is absurd. To commit an act of violence with the intent to cause disgrace is premeditated. If all athletes were to possess the virtue of wisdom they would have complete control over one self. wholly athletes should also possess the virtue of courage.Courage can be defined by Plato as preserving things which may payly be feared (Plato 31). In professional and amateur sport athletes need to respect and obey the rules and regulations. In other words athletes must fear the possible punishments, whether criminal or not, for violence to ultimately be terminated from sport. If athletes begin to feel that they are not above the law or that their subculture must follow the same laws as the remainder of society violence in sport will ultimately decrease.In the republic Plato describes temperance, the third vi rtue, as within man himself, in his soul, there is a etter part and a worse and that he is his own scale when the part which is better by nature has the worse under control (Plato 32). Clearly the virtue of temperance is important to possess for violence to diminish in sport. To master oneself and have the worse under control would definitely decrease the amount of violence in sport. Also, for athletes to have temperance would make for a more exciting game. To have control over ones self in a team game means putting the team before the individual. Doing so will lead to less violent acts and a more exciting team oriented room of play.The final and most important virtue is justice. Plato believes that if a community were to follow and obey the three former virtues of wisdom, courage and temperance justice will automatically exist. This can also be applied to the subculture of sport. If all people within the subculture of sport such as the General Managers, league officials and ath letes were to possess the three virtues of wisdom, courage and temperance justice would automatically exist and therefore violence in sport would be a criminal matter where perpetrators can be tried and convicted in civil court.In society there are two types of command given by reason hypothetical and bland despotics. Immanuel Kant describes hypothetical imperatives as an action that must be done to justify a means or reach a set goal, (Kant 2). Categorical imperatives are actions that are done because of their necessity to morality, (Kant 2). Hypothetical and categorical imperatives are also present in subcultures. Athletes who commit violent acts while competing follow the hypothetical imperative command.They are driven by hopes of winning and will do whatever it takes to achieve this goal. This is a key factor in giving an explanation to why some athletes find reasoning in committing a violent act while competing in a sporting event. Also this gives explanation to why some athl etes fell that no matter how wrong the act is, how anything that happens in an athletic contest be criminal. quest the hypothetical imperative is described as performing an action to justify a means or reach a set goal.If this action is violent many athletes will argue that it should not be considered criminal because it was a justified action executed to reach a set goal a goal which they are entitled and expected to carry out. However, Kant would argue against this stating that the only ethical principle is universal, and therefore categorical, is to treat oneself, al ways as an end, never as a mean. For example in hockey a hypothetical imperative could be if you dont obey the rules you go to the penalty shock. A categorical imperative would be Obey the rules, it is your duty.If athletes were to take on a categorical imperative way of life sport violence would come to an end, not because it is right or wrong, but because it would be the athletes duty to treat oneself, always as an end, never as a mean. Nonetheless, it is illogical to assume that violence in sport will one day be non existent. It is not illogical to assume that if the subculture of sport and those who are in command adapt the categorical imperative ways that violent acts in sport will be considered a criminal matter.To live a good life it is essential to possess the cardinal virtues. The cardinal virtues are essential in achieving an ideal state. In achieving an ideal state Kant would argue that the only ethical principle is universal and therefore categorical is to treat oneself, always as an end, never as a means. By treating oneself always as an end, never as a means true justice in present day society will hulk and everyone who commits a violent act will be prosecuted in civil court regardless if they belong to a subculture or not.

Friday, April 12, 2019

Lessons Form the Classroom Essay Example for Free

Lessons Form the schoolroom EssayA. I theorise my main strength is that I like interacting with people. In my career therefrom go forth-of-the-way(prenominal) I stupefy worked in multi-disciplinary teams, do daily presentations and managed teams so working with people is innate(p) and comfort satisfactory for me. Im friendly, inclusive and approachable. I think this is an asset that exit carry me far as a teacher. I deal experienced teachers who were intimidating and I found it detrimental to my learning. I want my students to feel comfortable to ask me anything, repeat anything, or explain anything. I think that as time progresses in the classroom Ill be able to develop good relationships with the students where they feel serious and uninhibited.I am naturally and therefore normally well organised and prepared which I think is a key skill in ELT. At my university induction lecture the speaker said bomb to visualize, and plan to fail which I think was valuable advic e and which has stuck with me. Planning my lessons appropriately helps me to better understand what Im teaching, embeds it in my mind so Im more(prenominal) confident in delivering it and helps me to reckon possible problems and their solutions. I think that as my trustfulness and skills grow I give be able to compose highly detailed lesson plans that will deliver my objectives.I am a creative person and like devising innovative approaches to problems. I like to challenge the standard to create tender slipway of doing things. The results have engaged and generated new perspectives. I hope this will translate well into the classroom where I can devise games and exercises that will appeal to the students and accelerate their learning. As my confidence, knowledge and skills develop I plan to combine my own methods into my teaching.My main weakness is my inability to express grammar rules and understand grammatical terminology much(prenominal) as present continuous. Although my primary school was strict with grammar, punctuation and spelling, we were not taught the labels of grammar terms beyond the basics of nouns, verbs, and adjectives. So whilst I can speak and write sentences that are clear and grammatically mark I am finding the terminology challenging. As an English language teacher this is obviously something that I need to remedy as soon as possible I am studying some(prenominal) grammar reference books from the suggested reading list and using mind mapping to help me understand and learn the rules. I remind myself that I already know the grammar rules I just dont know that I know themI have never used an interactive white board (IWB) before and have historically been reluctant to embrace new technology so I have not made full use of it as yet. As the teachers have used the IWB extensively in classes I have seen how convenient and flexible it is. I am keen to address this challenge as I trust it will be enormously beneficial to me in the classr oom and therefore improve and accelerate my learners experiences. I am going to take advantage of break times to practise using it to build my confidence and then set myself a deadline to incorporate it into a lesson. I am sure that after using it in a few lessons I will feel more composed and will advantageously integrate it into classes.I would like to improve my ability to communicate with the students in a more laconic and succinct way. I have found that my instructions have been too complicated and lengthy and thus caused confusion. As well as cultivating this skill Im going to try to integrate more gestures, demonstrations and pictures to resolve the issue. My research has produced a checklist for conference, (concise, concrete, clear, correct, coherent, complete), which I will use to test my instructions going forward.B. I have been impressed with the eliciting skills of the Celta teachers. In particular James Johnson has been demonstrating how to proficiently organise ma terials and structure questions to draw out desired responses. He is adept at posing questions that produce the target language or lexis. His seamless ability has demonstrated how effective this technique is in encouraging the students to think for themselves rather than simply loose them the answer, keeping them alert and assessing their language level as well as understanding of the concept be taught. In this way he truly engages with the students and thus his lessons are memorable. This is a very unnatural communication for me so to be able to smoothly incorporate this skill into my teaching would be a merriment for me.All of the teachers have a very calm, confident and charming disposition, which pervades the classroom. They are clearly highly consummate and experienced, which generates trust. I think these qualities are fundamental for effective learning. These qualities seem to be intrinsic to the instructors but Im hoping that over time I will ripen or at least need the ability to convey a fraction of this demeanour.C. When I have completed my Celta training I will be just at the beginning of my career so continuing professional development will be paramount to consolidate what Ive learned so far, keep my skills up to date, learn new and different techniques from other teachers and experts, and keep abreast of industry trends. I love learning and developing myself and regularly take classes, workshops and courses for fun and personal development as well as career development, so I am highly motivated to continue my ELT development.My research has made me aware of various online communities, which could be a great way to exchange ideas. I also intend to stay in touch with my peers on the course so we can continue to learn together, share experiences, ideas, problems and solutions.

Wednesday, April 10, 2019

Classification and Format in the Income Statement Essay Example for Free

Classification and Format in the Income debate EssayInvestors comm exclusively assess a fast(a)s value based on the firms expected future sustainable earnings stream. To inform analysts and other financial statement users just about sustainable earnings, firms often report income from recurring business activities separately from income effects from unusual or nonrecurring activities (such as asset impairments, restructuring, discontinued business segments, and extraordinary events). To provide more useful information for prediction, U.S. GAAP (Gener all in ally legitimate Accounting Principles) requires that the income statement include some(prenominal) or all of the following sections or categories depending on the record of the firms income for a periodIncome from Continuing Operations. Reports the revenues and expenses of activities in which a firm anticipates an ongoing involvement. When a firm does not have items in the second and third categories of income in a part icular year, all of its income items are related to continuing trading operations so it does not need to use the continuing operations label. Firms report their expenses in various ways. Most firms in the United States report expenses by their function cost of goods sold for manufacturing, selling expenses for marketing, administrative expenses for administrative management, and interest expense for financing. Other firms, particularly those in the European Community, tend to report expenses by their nature raw materials, compensation, advertising, and research and development.Income from Discontinued Operations. A firm that intends to run in a pull out of business but decides to sell or close down some portion of that line (such as closing a single plant or dropping a line of products) generally will report any income, gain, or loss from such an action under continuing operations. On the other hand, if a firm decides to terminate its involvement in a line of business (such as selling or shuttering an entire division or subsidiary), it will report the income, gain, or loss in the second section of the income statement, labeled Income, Gains, and Losses from Discontinued Operations.Extraordinary Gains and Losses. Extraordinary gains and losings arise from events that are (1) unusual given the nature of a firms activities, (2) nonrecurring, and (3) material in amount. Corporate annual reports rarely disclose such items. Many firms have reported restructuring charges and impairment losings in their income statements in recent years. Such items often reflect the write-down of assets or the recognition of liabilities arising from changes in economic conditions and corporate strategies.Because restructuring charges and impairment losses do not usually satisfy the criteria for discontinued operations or extraordinary items, firms report them in the continuing operations section of the income statement. If the amounts are material, they appear on a separate line to distinguish them from recurring income items. Income, gains, and losses from discontinued operations and extraordinary gains and losses appear in the income statement net of any income tax effects. The majority of published income statements include only the first section because discontinued operations and extraordinary gains and losses occur infrequently.

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

Debut novel by Benjamin Franklin Essay Example for Free

Debut impertinent by Benjamin Franklin EssayHawk, a debut novel by provideiam Wallis (a poet) was extended by The paper last 2006 with a 158 pages. Its genre is Fiction or Autobiographical. Hawk is the first novel written by the author that has won the 2006 Benjamin Franklin Award in Fiction that is given annually by publishing companys Marketing Association (an organization composed of around 4,000 independent publishers. It appeared last August 14, 2006 come out of the closet of Publishers Weekly, in the Benjamin Franklin Award segment of PMAs advertisement. He has a plan to publish three more stories that has a relation with his first novel. BODY The novel narrates about a allegory of family and survival while combining Southern traditional literary and contemporary expression. Maintaining the image of a poet and at the same time as a novelist, Wallis was able to recount a perception of life on earth by a seven-year-olds eye leave alone Falke, the leading character of his novel. Perplexing introductory events made the story more appealing to the readers. Chronicles of conventional childhood experiences of Will Falke is one of the focuses of the novel.His pains and disappointments on the stage of his growth through and through which is spent mostly in Monticello, Arkansas, during the early 1950s molded him to become a Adika, pg 2 tempered person. Having suffered and survived tough problems has not necessarily pushed Will to prefer to be in a place separate than his hometown. The state where the central character lives is enclosed by a half-dozen other neighboring southern states, in which we can relate on how the characters in this story are interlinked. William Wallis, as a Southern writer keenly described one of the major preoccupancy of Southern America which is survival, both enduring and prevailing.Will Falke, born in the year of the fifties have experienced the both negative and positive boldness of his existence in this world. He lost hi s eye he has endured the vicious pain of punishments from his cruel and beastly father he has to stay sturdy in spite of the mocking and humiliations of his schoolmates, and a mother who is so weak to continuously strive to live in order to protect him and his family. These are the examples of him being cursed. On the contrary, there are also things aside from troubles that can still be a reason for Will to hold on and can be considered as a blessing.Significant characters want Alma, a entertain with a good heart that taught him to read Ruth, Wills frail mother where he got his warmth for classical music and singing and he also erudite the lyrics of classical music from a Jew befriend Tyree, his gentle neighbor that skilled him to play chess and gave him the gift of friendship and even simple things like a family farm that taught him to learn the ways of nature just like how his indignant father develop him to be resilient he is cared and very much loved by women, and lastly, he has eventually learned liberty and freedom like a Hawk. Adika, pg 3On my point of view, this novel is so warm written by the author that has the capacity to move the hearts of the reader through the varying well-hanging events and experiences as well as emotions that we could easily relate with. Every experience of Will, every struggle regarding his parents, sisters, and the other mess that were dear to him has rendered complex scenario of bravery and the true value of a family. He has not only portrayed the classic or typical outlook of love of a family member but exhibited with honesty and admixture of artistry the true meaning of selfless and Christ-like lovefull of bravery and hope.

Sunday, April 7, 2019

Ptlls 008 Roles, Responsibilities Essay Example for Free

Ptlls 008 Roles, Responsibilities EssayImportant to define the terms prior to listing the entities which may impact on my work Legislative requirement A duty to act consort to the law as defined in an symbolise of Parliament and usually enforceable through the courts. calculate of Practice A set of rules outlining how a person in a particular profession or situation is expected to behave. Statutory Code of Practice A Code of Practice approved by Parliament and admissible as evidence in any legal action. The electric shaverren ferment (2004) Every Child Matters underpinned the Change For Children agenda. The operation came into being following the death of Victoria Climbie. The Act is applicable to children and endangered adults up to the age of 25. Focused on five specific outcomes for children Be healthy Stay Safe bed and Achieve Make a positive contribution Achieve sparing well-being Protection of Children Act (1991) gave local authorities to investigates cases of c hild abuse. Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act (2006) introduced a vetting and barring service for those working with children and vulnerable adults. Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) checks (previously CRB checks).Code of Professional Practice (2008) introduced by the Lifelong Learning Sector. The scratch is based on 7 behaviours expected of teachers. Copyright Designs and Patents Act (1988) relates to copying and adapting materials. The Data Protection (1998) relates to development held on people by others. Education and Skills Act (2008) aimed at increasing participation in learning. The equation Act (2010) brought all the areas of discrimination race, sex, disability, race into one Act. The 2010 Act identifies 9 areas of discrimination.Freedom Of Information Act (2000) individuals can ask to see the information held on them Health and Safety At Work (1974) imposes obligations on all to operate within a safe and healthy environment Human Rights Act (1998) elemental rights for all The Further Education Teachers Qualifications (England) Regulations (2007) professional status for teachers in FE and a qualification route GRAVELLS, A. (2012) Preparing To Teach In The Lifelong Learning Sector 1. 2 Analyse ingest responsibilities for promoting equality and valuing diversityThe definition of equality is to treat everybody equally, especially in terms of status, rights and opportunities. The 2010 Equality Act brought together a number of different pieces of legislation which means it is unlawful to discriminate against people on the grounds of pay, sex, race and disability. Diversity means being aware that every person is unique, not solo because of their visible differences such as race, age or disability, but also non visible differences, religion, social background, economic status or political beliefs.Inclusion is about being objective and looking beyond counterbalance impressions. Its about diversity and breaking down barriers, changing lives and promoting equality. Within my role its distinguished for me to base my practice around the concepts of equality, diversity and inclusion and keep an open mind. Without an open mind I may not support all people equally to recognise their potential and achieve their aspirations. disparity could then be argued to have occurred as students would not have been treated equally.

The Importance of Communication Essay Example for Free

The Importance of communion EssayFoundationsWorkers at all levels of an organization, be they CEOs, center(a) managers, or entry-level stave, recognize that transmute is inevitable. However, the successful implementation of organizational remove in reply to lurchs in an organizations away environment can be peerless of the greatest challenges top-level attractors face. unheeding of how faraway-seeing and meticulously planned organizational mixture whitethorn be, it leave behind not be effectively utilize unless it is communicated to an organizations provide in such a way that resistance is overcome, fears are assuaged, wateriness is minimized, and buy-in by all affected individuals is secured. Kurt Lewin (as cited in Evans, Ward, Rugaas, 2000) was one of the starting signal to develop a mystify of behavioral change in his 1951 book, Field Theory in Social Sciences. Lewin described three stages as being needed in the implementation of a change in a persons behavior. The first of these is unfreezing, the stage during which a person becomes ready to learn or acquire a new behavior, whitethornhap by recognizing the in say-so of a current behavior or by learning about the benefits that would come if the new behavior were implemented.The second stage is the change itself, which will involve a trial gunpoint during which the person familiarizes him or herself with the new behavior. Finally, the refreezing stage gos as the new behavior becomes habitual or penetrate with the individual. Thinkers in the management field generate applied this model to the exhibit of change indoors organizations. In order for change to be effectively and lastingly implemented, all provide affected by the change mustiness go through this unfreezing-changing-refreezing process. Kotter (1995) lists eighter steps that leaders of organizations should attain in order to successfully implement change. One of the most crucial steps in the process, and the ste p during which many attempts at organizationalchange fail, is communicating the tidy sum of change to the staff via every possible nub. He notes that a authorised error made by leaders trying to implement change is under- confabulation of the change to the staff that will be implementing it.The most effective communicators discuss the change at every opportunity and incorporate the password into day-to-day activities such as performance reviews, employee training courses, and quarterly production meetings, thus making unsnarl to employees not only the overarching vision of change for the organization, but likewise exactly where the employee fits into the process. Organizational leaders must also behave in ways that are consistent with the vision they are promoting converse regarding the change should occur not only via words, but also via deeds (Kotter, 1995). Communication about change help in the unfreezing of old behaviors, the transition during which new behaviors are ado pted, and the refreezing of the new behavior into habit. In fact, crossing and Ford (1995) claim that change does not occur except in that it is mediate by communication in new(prenominal) words, communication is the context within which change occurs.They describe four types of conversations that move the change process through its successive phases initiative conversations, that begin the change process by poreing the participants attention on what require to be done conversations of understanding, during which the participants seek to make sense of the problem and start generating methods of addressing it conversations of performance, which concentrate on producing the intended result and conversations for closure, during which the change process is determined to be complete. This model of change as mediated by the conversations that instigate and guide it differs from previous thought in which communication about the change is presented as a single stage in the change proces s, although it expands upon Kotters (1995) call for communication regarding change to occur in as many contexts as possible within an organization. The model also helps to conceptualize the aim of communication during the stages of unfreezing (instigation), change (understanding and performance), and refreezing (closure). Current thinking in organizational change and communicationThe hold up by Lewin (Evans, Ward, Rugaas, 2000), Kotter (1995), Ford and Ford (1995), and other earlier researchers in the field lays an important put upation for current work in the use of communication to effectively upraise change within an organization. Deborah Barrett (2002) developed the Strategic Employee Communication model as a tool for organizations to use in surveying the effectiveness of their aver communication channel when confronted with the necessity of organizational change. The model breaks down effective employee communication into four components which interact in well-functionin g companies to strengthen strategical objectives. One important component is a top and middle level management that is act to foster communications up, down, and across the organization (Barrett, 2002). The second component is the communications themselves messages that are both tailored to the audience they are intended for to maximize relevance, and that are consistent with each other and with the overall strategic objectives of the organization.The third base component is the mode of communication it should rely on a variety of media but should take place primarily in person. The final component is a communications team or staff that is positioned in such a way as to be privy to the thinking behind the go withs strategic objectives so that the messages they produce reflect an understanding of the change. In companies that have effective communication networks, these four components are continually assessed against the background of progress towards the companys strategic o bjectives. Barrett (2002) makes special(prenominal) recommendations regarding how the effectiveness of employee communications during times of organizational change whitethorn be evaluated, giving an example of a opinion instrument to assess perceptions of the current state of communication, suggestions for the increment of cascading workshops to spread the message of change throughout the organization, and methods of monitor how well the message of change has spread and been internalized throughout the organization.The influence of Lewins (Evans, Ward, Rugaas, 2000) unfreezing changing refreezing model of change can be seen in Van der Waldts (2004) depiction of change communication as occurring in three phases. During the first phase of change, individuals within organizations face the loss of old ways of doing things, and should be support in the initial phases of the change by communication that acknowledges this loss and that recognizes the difficulty that some individuals may have in letting go of the past. During the second phase of change, staff may face confusion and suspense as theytry to adopt the new way of doing things. Van der Waldt characterizes this as a neutral regularise a way-station between the old and the new, and notes that communication during this phase should recognize and attempt to assuage the isolation that may ensue from this confusion. The setting of short term, easily measurable and attainable goals will aid employee morale during this time. The third phase of change occurs as staff begin to internalize the change and move forward, and communication at this time should be characterized by an acknowledgement of what individuals in the company have accomplished thus far and an understanding of the role the individual plays within the new system. A current topic in this ambit of research is the use of narrative techniques in communication about change.Organizational change is disruptive by nature, and involves the uprooting of old norms that have enabled a company to succeed (or at least survive) thus far, and the adoption of as-yet-untried practices (Denning, 2005). In order for the change to succeed, management and staff must voluntarily and enthusiastically severely disrupt their own established work habits and consent to move into the unknown. Stephen Denning, one of the champions of the use of narrative in change communication, argues that in these situations, the organizations leaders must employ extraordinary communication techniques to achieve the level of buy-in necessary to make change work. The use of storytelling to bring reality and substance to a leaders vision is one way in which change can be made real to management and staff. Denning (2006) describes eight different narrative techniques that can be sedulous in different stages of organizational change. An example of one of these techniques is the use of springboard stories, which may be used to spark action and help muster fanaticism for the change.Stories used in these situations should be simple and straightforward in content, the goal being to spark the listeners imaginations and to buzz off them imagining stories of their own in reference to the change being introduced. Stories may also be used as devices to deflect or defuse rumors, and as preparation for the future after the change is implemented. The overall purport of the narratives is to change the listeners behavior in such a way that it is aligned with the leaders objectives. Denning (2006) warns of the danger of becoming so involved with the crafting and telling of stories that the goal of the narrative is lost. Storytelling can also be a way toget employees talking and thinking about what organizational change means to them and how change can be enacted.A small regional hospital in New Mexico employed an interactive narrative technique in which employees were presented with a role-playing scenario that likened the transformation of the hospitals mission to an indium Jones-style journey that was titled Raiders of the Lost Art (Adamson, Pine, Van Steenhoven, Kroupa, 2006). Within the structure of the games narrative, staff were presented with data regarding themselves, the community within which they worked, and their patients, and in this context were given scenarios about which they were encouraged to present ideas and feedback. By using this approach, hospital administrators were able to solicit employee feedback, involve staff in the development of strategic goals and objectives in support of the new mission, and gain buy-in by making employees a part of the change process. Change, communication, and information organizationsLibraries and other information organizations are faced every day with the challenges that come from adapting to a rapidly changing external environment. Information organizations that are able to proactively incorporate change into their strategic planning will be in a better position to keep pace w ith the evolving demands of customers than organizations that merely struggle to catch up as change overwhelms them. Farley, Broady-Preston, Hayward (1998) identify four primary areas of change that affect academic libraries in particular economics, technology, high education, and organization. The rising costs of materials, combined with widespread reductions in funding, compounded by the additional financial turn on imposed by the need to introduce new technologies, create an environment in which libraries must change in order to survive.The increasing sophistication of technological tools used by librarians has, in some large institutions especially, created a need for staff reorganization to incorporate greater quislingism with technical support staff (Farley, et al., 1998). Given this environment, effective communication with staff regarding change is essential to the success of libraries and other information organizations. Horenstein found that communication with subrou tine library staff about the implementation of change is also important in fostering high levels of job satisfaction amongst library staff (as cited in Farley, etal., 1998).Yet, although there is a substantial tree trunk of publications dealing with change management in information organizations (Farley et al.), little has been written about the specific application of communication research to the needs of information organizations facing change. For instance, a literature review conducted in conjunction with a study described below (Chalmers, Liedtka, Bednar, 2006) uncovered no literature published specifically on library communications assessment since the 1980s.In a review for librarians of change management literature from the dividing line world, smith (2006) addresses communicating in times of change by developing a serial of rules of effective communication drawn from the literature. One of these rules states that managers should recognize that not all organizations, and not all individuals within organizations, will react to change the same way, and that communications should be geared accordingly, echoing the above-described communication model that incorporates targeted messages (Barrett, 2002). Another of smiths rules emphasizes the importance of making communication about change a two-party process incorporating a variety of communication methods including written, verbal, large and small group meetings and one-on-one encounters, and formal and daily venues, keep backing Kotters (1995) message about incorporating change communication whenever there is opportunity to do so.Though Smiths article is directed towards library professionals and, since it is published in the journal Library Management, is a helpful vehicle for introducing concepts change communication research that librarians may not otherwise be exposed to, Smith does little more than review current literature and does not attempt to draw lessons from the literature to appl y specifically to information organizations. On the other hand, Chalmers, et al. (2006) apply lessons from the literature of business communications to develop a survey that identifies the primary communication channels within the staff of a large academic library and assesses staff satisfaction with communication processes. They then provide recommendations based upon their experiences regarding how such an audited account may be conducted in other similar organizations.The communications audit was conducted at California State University, Fullertons Pollak Library, in response to a perception of diminished morale and increased staff isolation in response to rapid changes in managementphilosophy, staffing, and the introduction of new technologies. Library staff reported a comparatively high rate (76%) of satisfaction with their level of informedness about changes within their own department, but indicated that they were less quelled (46% satisfaction rate) with the degree to which they received information about the long range planning and goals of the library as a whole. Staff received their information both through formal library communications (newsletters, website, etc. 80-98%) and informal channels (91%). Chalmers et al. describe how the survey instrument developed could be used to establish service line data about intra-organization communication channels and identify areas of staff dissatisfaction with communication within the library.Future directionsAlthough there is a significant body of work in the business management field that deals with effective intra-organizational communication in times of change, little of this work has been applied in a way that is specific to the needs of information organizations. Given that information organizations have been and are facing a period of rapid and intensive change, work that applies the change management lessons learned in the business world to the needs of libraries would be especially timely. In partic ular, case studies of information organizations that have implemented communication strategies and are monitoring the effectiveness of these strategies in facilitating change would be useful starting points for other information organizations facing change. In addition, the adaptation of alert theoretical models of intra-organizational communication to information organizations may provide a useful starting point for the development of communication strategies, goals, and objectives.In the greater body of business management literature regarding change communication, the primary focus of most research has been on top-down communication methods by which leaders may effectively promote their vision amongst employees (Jones, Watson, Gardner, Gallois, 2004). Although several workers (Adamson, 2006 Chalmers et al. 2006 LeTourneau, 2004 Smith, 2006) emphasize the importance of feedback from employees to management, and communication between employees, there is little material that deals with methods to assess the importance of or to actively cultivatethese types of communications within an organization (Jones, et al., 2004).Additionally, communication and coordination between departments may become increasingly important during times of change for instance, in libraries the introduction of new technology may necessitate greater collaboration between IT departments and reference, circulation, or other services. Further investigation into means of facilitating collaboration between formerly non-interacting departments during times of change would be a helpful addition to the current literature on this topic.ReferencesAdamson, G., Pine, J., Van Steenhoven, T., Kroupa, J. (2006). How storytelling can drive strategic change. Strategy and Leadership, 34(1), 36-41. Barrett, D. J. (2002). Change communication Using strategic employee communication to facilitate major change. Corporate Communication An International Journal, 7(4), 219-231. Chalmers, M., Liedtka, T., Bedn ar, C. (2006). A library communication audit for the twenty-first century. Portal Libraries and the Academy, 6(2), 185-195. Denning, S. (2005). Transformational innovation A journey by narrative. Strategy and Leadership, 33(3), 11-16. Denning, S. (2006). Effective storytelling Strategic business narrative techniques. Strategy and Leadership, 34(1), 42-48. Evans, G. E., Ward, P. L., Rugaas, B. (2000). Management basics for information professionals. New York Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc. Farley, T., Broady-Preston, J., Hayward, T. (1998). Academic libraries, people, and change. Library Management, 19(4), 238-251. Ford, J., Ford, L. (1995). The role of conversations in producing intentional change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 541-570. Jones, E., Watson, B., Gardner, J., Gallois, C. (2004). Organization communication Challenges for the new century. Journal of Communication, 54(4), 722-750. Kotter, J. P. (1995). preeminent change Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard Business Review, 73(2), 59 67. LeTourneau, B. (2004). Communicate for change. Journal of Healthcare Management, 49(6), 354-357. Smith, I. (2006). Communicating in times of change. Library Management, 27(1/2), 108-112. Van der Waldt, D. (2004). Towards corporate communication excellence in a changing environment. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 3, 134-143.