Sunday, March 31, 2019

Overview and analysis of Leadership theories

Overview and analysis of drawing cards theories create force score history and non the other way around. In periods where in that respect is no draws, society stands still. Progress occurs when courageous, skillful leading seize the fortune to change things for the better Harry S. Truman.Leadership has been defined in some(prenominal) ways. In its simplest form, leading has been described by Susan Ward as the prowess of motivating a group of tidy sum to act towards achieving a leafy vegetable goal. Leadership, however, is a very complex subject, and encompasses such wide ranging disciplines like merciful psychology, man management, management of resources, communication skills, technical knowledge etc. A leader, therefore, is a person who has these skills and knows how to use them to motivate, guide and inspire the team to fulfill his mass.For centuries, leading has traditionally been associated with the military. In recent times, however, the importance of business lead has become much and more unpatterned. As a consequence of this epitome shift, the old theories of leadership switch given way to new ones, more aligned towards the business environment.Overview of Leadership TheoriesThe concept of leadership has witnessed a lingering change from individual leadership to organisational leadership. A study of the evolution of leadership theories through the ages cl ahead of time highlights this point.The earliest studies on leadership were ground more often than not on existing leaders, giving rise to the theory that leaders were born, not made. The dominance of the male gender, particularly in military leadership, gave rise to the large Man theory, which suggested that born leaders would arise when the spot called for them. It is quite evident that in the current sociological environment, this theory can be considered to be ir pertinent.An offshoot of the Great Man theory was the Trait theory, which suggested that some pot had certain inborn traits that qualified them to be good leaders. This theory suffers from standardised drawbacks as the Great Man theory. Moreover, both these theories be applicable to individual, quite than organisational leadership.A quantum jump from the earlier theories came with the concept of the Behavioural theory of leadership. With this, the center on shifted to learning, rather than inheriting the art of leadership. The Participative Leadership theory evolved on the assumption that better decisions could be made if the march involved several people instead of one person alone. On the other hand, according to the Situational Leadership theory, the leadership expression would depend on situational factors.In the study of leadership in the context of modern business, the two most popular theories that capture emerged are the Transactional theory and the Transformational theory. The transactional leaders work through a process of clear structures, and a system of rewards and puni shments forms an integral part of the process. The Transformational theory is based on the leaders vision and his ability to get his subordinates to follow that vision by personally inspiring them and transforming them by enlarging their vision, motivating and providing intellectual teaching. writings ReviewStudies on leadership make up been carried disclose since time immemorial. In circa 500 BC, Sun Tzu described the five traits of a successful leader (Gagliardi, 1999). It is believed that his thoughts on leadership closely approximate the Situational Leadership theory of modern times. In 16th century AD, Niccolo Machiavelli put forth theories on how a prince should acquire and maintain his state. Other strategists of their times such as Lao Tzu and Confucius of China and Chanakya of India also taught leadership principles some of which are still relevant today.Since the turn of the twentieth century, when the action shifted from the battlefield to the boardroom, new leadership theories have been presented, existing ones have been revised, reviewed and reframed, and new leadership gurus have become habitation names.The Trait Theory. The Trait theory has been in existence since the early twentieth Century. Various studies carried break by different researchers (Stogdill, 1948, 1974 Mann, 1959 Lord, DeVader and Allinger, 1986 Locke and Kirkpatrick, 1991) are in stipulation that specific traits exist that distinguish leaders from non-leaders, alone differences exist in the traits identified by them. However, it is evident that mere possession of these traits does not sham a leader as a combination of personality and situation would determine the leadership qualities at any point of time. Moreover, the identifications of traits is a internal issue, and their validity would remain debatable.The Behavioural or Style Approach. In the early fifties, the focus of leadership theories shifted from traits to behaviors as many scholars felt that leader behavio ur was more important than mental, physical or emotional traits. Two studies carried out by Ohio State University and the University of Michigan in the late 1940s and 1950s set out to validate this theory. Using a questionnaire on a sample population, the Ohio study concluded that there were two distinct aspects of leadership initiating structure or task oriented behaviour and consideration, or demonstrate concern for subordinates. The Michigan study concluded that leadership behaviour could be either employee oriented, or production oriented. Both these studies indicate that there are certain universally applicable leadership behaviours, but there is no proper empirical evidence to support these. Moreover, these studies have not taken the effects of variable situations into consideration.Situational Leadership Theory. Based on Reddins 3-D charge Style theory and developed by Blanchard and Hersey (1969), this is one of the most widely utilise theories that has bring widespread use in training and employee development and works on the premise that the situation will dictate the lawsuit of leadership. Depending upon the situation, the leadership style could either be directive or supportive. The leader will have to modify his style along with the variance in employee morale and skills. The figure below represents the correlation between the leadership style and the situationThe Situational leadership model clothes the onus of employee development on the leader. Because of its chasteness and ease of implementation, this is in wide use for training of leaders. It call for to be borne in mind that as the development of subordinates progresses, the leader himself also ask to develop and to adapt to the changing situation.Transformational Leadership.The term transformational leadership was first used by Downton (1973) but the concept was brought into prominence by James MacGregor fire (1978). According to this theory, transformational leaders provide inspi ration and motivate their subordinates to work towards a common objective. Burns divided leaders into two categories the Transactional leaders who work on a system of rewards and punishments for the work done and the Transformational leaders who make a connection with the followers to work towards the common goal. This theory was advance developed by Bernard Bass (1985), who put forth the view that transformational leaders make their followers aware of the importance of the task and of their own needs for personal growth, while at the same time motivating them to place the organisational interests before their own. Further research has been carried out by Bass Avolio, 1990 Kunhert, 1994 and Avolio, 1999.Studies have demonstrated that transactional leaders had generally performed up to the expected standards, while transformational leaders have exceeded expectations (http//www.abolrous.com/hazem/leadershiptheories.pdf). Transformational leadership has been widely accepted by many o rganisations, but although they make an important contribution to the literature, but they should not be herald as a revolutionary approach that makes all the earlier theories obsolete. (Yukl, 1999). coetaneous studies of various leaders and organisations indicate that for the successful implementation of organisational goals, there is a requirement of a mix of transformational leadership (at the top management level) and transactional leadership (at the implementation level).Notable amongst the research on this theory are the ones carried out by Bennis Nanus (1985) and Trichy DeVanna (1986, 1990), using similar methodologies of interviewing a large quash of CEOs. Bennis Nanus came to the conclusion that the traits of transformational leaders can be described by four IsIdealized Influence (leader becomes a role model)Inspirational motivating (team spirit, motivate, and provide meaning and challenge).Intellectual Stimulation (creativity innovation)Individual Consideration (me ntoring)Trichy DeVanna found that leaders bring about change by way of a three step processRecognise the fact that there is a need for changeCreate a vision and design a plan based on this visionInstitutionalize the change.http//sbinfocanada.about.com/od/leadership/g/leadership.htm Ward, Susan Leadershiphttp//changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/leadership_theories.htm Leadership TheoriesBass, B. M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership larn to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, (Winter) 19-31.Gagliardi, G., (2001) Sun Tzus art of war plus its awe-inspiring secrets The keys to strategy. Clearbridge publishing. Seattle, WA.http//www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/crosscuttings/leadership_situational.html Situational LeadershipLeadership Theory and Practice, Peter G. Northouse, Third Edition heed of Organizational Behavior, Paul Hersey, Seventh Editionhttp//www.abolrous.com/hazem/leadershiptheories.pdf Leadership SummaryEuropean Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1999, 8 (1), 33-48 An Evaluative Essay on Current Conceptions of Effective Leadership, Gary Yuklhttp//business.nmsu.edu/dboje/teaching/338/transformational_leadership.htm Transformational Leadership David M. Boje (2000)http//psychology.about.com/od/leadership/a/transformational.htm TransformationalLeadership Kendra Cherry

Consequences and Benefits of Liberalism

Consequences and Benefits of LiberalismLiberalism as a policy-making idea has become far excessively complicated. It appears there is as much badism as there be munificents. whatsoever of which are libertarianism, classical fully grownism, bleeding heart liberalism, sparingal liberalism, policy-making liberalism, accessible liberalism, high liberalism, objectivism, anarcho-capitalism, and some popularly neo-liberalism. It is sound to say that these numerous makes on Liberalism amount to an opaque understanding of liberalism, which needs to be sorted go forth instantly. The controversial question is what exactly is liberalism and what are the best delegacys to hit maximum utility in the miserliness as well as the society via liberalism?Due to the inconclusive disposition of this term, various economists have their intelligible visible horizons on liberalism, ranging from absolute freedom to, liberalism with use of force, to feminism and liberalism, liberalism and its response to integrated policy-making spending, liberalism and public reason and so on. Milton Friedman assesses governmental liberal eyeshot from the 17th century to today. He explains that over the medieval 350 years, liberalism has been responsible for the advanced replace that has regardn place in the United States and England. Friedman believes that the success of liberalism is establish on the initial idea of liberalism itself, and observes, that this ideology is committed to mature and has as its goal, the improvement in the preference of the great unwashed both politically and economically. dis unheeding of this, liberalism has been criticised by the conservative agenda, which is of the horizon that there is an excess impact of political sympathies in liberalism, which contradicts the initial idea of the term itself. Friedman is of the flavour that the governing body engages in reckless spending, high taxation and monopolizing world place. However, libe ralism holds that while governance has power, the power should be desexed therefore the regimen activity has the duty to respect the closeness of individuals, tolerate religious groups, making modern democracy and emergegrowth of liberalism. Liberalism is base on the idea of democracy therefore its principles should be based factors that pull ahead minimal government intervention on economic issues and maximum give tongue to of the people. well-nigh of these issues related to liberalism are as follows the determination to get past nationalism. Liberalism should prioritize free per nominateance of tug as well as capital. Basically, this view is against the existence of boarders, therefore it calls for advanced countries, to make major investments in 3rd world countries in modulate to elevate them to the point where out-migration becomes optional as opposed to an act of survival. The bottom line of this view is the belief that the entire world should be a single economic zone. When this happens human potentiality jackpot be fully increased, so labours ability to reach its maximum value.Secondly, education should be substantially attainable, and should have no actual beginning and an end, hence the abolishment of an imperious structure of the traditional university. Education should not prepare individuals to serve others, save should acquire a global sense of joy and pleasure, a movement of play and adventure it has lost. Finally, the cash economy must end in order for there to be diverse lifestyle. Neoliberalism is the theme of the current economy we live in therefore exploitation is simply seen as a means to an end. Friedmans view enables us to see reasons why liberalism should change the view of the economy and how it measures progress. According to Friedmans view, based on the initial idea of liberalism, separating human fulfill from money and removing the need to accumulate money as a function of physical survival, new forms of human traffichip, impart come into being that we tolerate hardly anticipate yet. Art willing at last become democratized and liberating, because its compromise with money will not be a factor. Contrary to Milton Friedmans view on liberalism and the pattern form its supposed to take, Liberalism is not as straightfor struggled as it sounds. Greener, another economist is of believe that, liberalism and force are immensely related. He points out the fact that regardless of what we believe liberalism to be, the issue of military action may appear to be a contradiction. According to Greener, in the 1980s, round authors have tried to show the relationship amidst liberalism and democracy, stating that liberalism enhances peaceful relations. at that place is a strong belief that liberalism is the nucleus of democracy. Regardless of these relations, greener believes that people are brainwashed and believe that there is only one view of liberalism hence we have become programmed to do what t he leaders of economy want, without even lettered it. Greener believes that there are truly various liberal approaches based on the priority that is given to the value that are held. He is strongly of the opinion that liberal approaches differ because of the emphasis placed on una same(p) values. Some of the values that are part of the liberalism are tolerance and consent versus progress and civility, or values of cosmopolitanism versus communitarianism. Liberalism and the use of force could be sightlyified on the grounds thats there are different values, such as self-defence, or the creation of liberal entities. Liberals highlight the necessity of military forces in order to protect liberal societies and states. This is a paradox in itself however greener lays emphasis on the importance of rights, rule of law, individualism, tolerance and consent. The idea of the voluminousness of liberalism, based on concept of progress and a resolute view of development and civility, provide s a major site of altercation in speculating closely the use of force when apposed against holy mans of tolerance and consent. The second part of the article examines this anchor site of debate and explores the tension amid cosmopolitan and communitarian views point out the various instances the deployment of militaries can be justified by which of those liberal terms. Finally, with near reflections about the urgent need for those of us in the international relations field to be able to articulate just what kinds of liberal values are being pursued in the global arena so that we may better assess future actions undertaken in the name of liberal values.An interesting question to use up is, is feminist political liberalism possible? Hartley. C and Watson lay emphasis on the relationship betwixt feminism and liberalism. The ideal idea behind liberalism is to promote equality, but feminism recognizes in the liberal capitalist system that there is still gender inequality. The fact is the liberal principles include democracy, tolerance and equality for all citizens. Besides that, liberalism holds many different comprehensive doctrines as reasonable. The position taken is that political liberalism can be feminist, as far as particular political conceptions of justice can have feminist content, but too because the core commitments of political liberalism is geared only to secure genuine substantive equality for all, including women(p122). feminism was simply the application of liberal principles to women. Women were seen as having fundamentally the same nature and interests as men and thereby entitled to the same rights. Thorough feminists in the 1970s strongly opposed the liberal assimilation of womens claims based on the belief that liberal conception of person did not signify womens nature. They insisted that although the liberal individual was based on impersonal notion and coherence, womens moralistic life was entrenched in her body and emotions. Higgin s, T.E supports this point by enlighten us on how liberalism has limited has limited the usefulness for promoting feminism. She lays emphasis on this point by stating that liberalism does not really define an agenda that guarantees womens rights and improvements in womens condition in society. Higgins basically sees liberalism as dimension many of the contradictions that prevents it from being a theory that could stand strongly in favour of feminism. Higgins claims that liberalism holds that there are commitments to equal citizenship in the public as well as in private realms, hence creating the corresponding conflict, imputable to the lack of obligation as to where the boundary is, between public and private. Higgins claims that for a theory to be considered liberal there has to be some agreement as to a robust boundary defining these two. Basically this just means that, for something to be liberal it has to respect the liberty of choice and people must be considered as having e qual worth as choosers. Unfortunately, she is of the belief that liberalism disregards boundaries and fails women in the private area.Seeing that womens difference develop into an illiberal nature in contrast to liberal man, the identical issues are raised as those that occur in the cultural case, although as well as the stainless fact that men and women would seem to have to live together in the private realm if the race is to be satisfactorily continued. Women are not treated as a self-reproducing cultural group. Nevertheless, illiberal women could be distinctively represented in the public sphere. This would turn into a compromise between the representatives of conflicting values. One could argue that woman be viewed as a weaker group whose members need an element of preferential treatment in order to attain equality on all grounds, but this view is heavy frowned on, due to the mere fact that it contradicts the idea of liberalism, which is treat everyone equally.Liberalism can also been viewed from the point of view of public reason. Macedo.S criticizes the society, showing many areas in which liberalism has shown shortcomings. He criticizes the fact that many liberal societies condone war finished their war like foreign policies. He is also goes further to criticize the path in which the society accepts the unequal treatment of African Americans, the poor as well as the disabled and the way it marginalizes and excludes people. In addition to that, he sees society as mobilizing people to work on their behalf. Other areas of critical check into that have been raised include sexual permissiveness, the lack of commitment in marriage and the divorce that has become commonplace, as well as the rule of abortion. As Macedo explains, He believes the society should be like Jesus and not be as focused on materialism, consumerism and self- concern as they are. The secular nature, catalysed by the hunger for earn maximization, has led to gross exploitation of individuals, increase the gap between the poor and the productive. This neoliberal effect contradicts the value and practices that liberalism supports.Liberalism seems to be inevitable in the global economy we live in and has noteworthy impact on every economy. The European economy is the one of the most dominant and Pheiffer.C review of resilient liberalism in Europes political economy enlightens us on how liberalism appears to have lost its dominance in society with capitalism being the means of moving ahead of progress. exclusively it appears thats liberalism had to make some changes, and as Pheiffer maintains, liberalism shows that it was resilient and emerged as neo-liberalism, and support competitive markets, with global free trade, and capital mobility, with a state that is no longer in charge and wanting to help everyone, but sort of a state that Is there to provide support the growth of business. Liberalism that had existed for so many years came under attack but still well-kept most of its principles, although its constantly moving towards the idea of smaller government intervention. Liberalism has transformed into neo-liberalism and has compromised its principles in light of what it sees as progress.Laying emphasis on minimal government intervention and the increased transformation of liberalism to neo-liberalism, Isaacs, D.M, in his review of liberalisms response to corporate political spending, talks about how liberalism is the understanding movement that emphasizes freedom as the ultimate goal and the individual as the ultimate entity in society, pertaining to a free man This basically means, in a society where there is liberalism, , there is minimal effort to limit and restrain individuals. Isaacs claims that regardless of the fact that liberalism is about freedom as well as progress, corporate political spending is inconsistent with liberalism because it undermines governments ability to fulfil its proper role weakens the checks and balanc es that the separation of political and economic power places on political authority, and reduces the ability of individuals to counter exceptional interests (Isaacs, p12). Ironically, he enlightens us on a major similarity between liberalism and conservatism, showing how liberalism embraces some of the thinking of conservatism. Both liberals and conservationist believe in substantial economic growth, hence their gross support of neo-liberalism. Both parties are of belief that neo-liberalism is the sole aim for economic growth, seeing no leaf factor. Due to their rigid views on neo-liberalism they fail to see any cons of this system, regardless of the fact that neo-liberalism is potentially responsible for obliterating various economies.Referring to the initial question, on what liberalism actually is, over the years, it has been able to transform itself. Due to the inevitable adaptation of globalisation and its popularity in the world we live in today, the most dominant form of liberalism is neo-liberalism. Personally, I have a neo-liberal perspective globalisation, hence my support of profit maximization. I believe we earn what we work for, and it serves as an incentive to maximize efficiency. On the other hand, profit is not always maximized in a corporate socially responsible way, making exploitation the order of the day in neo-liberal system. Like everything in life, there is always a way to make the best of every situation. Neo-liberalism is undoubtedly inevitable considering the adoption of globalization therefore we have to adopt ways to incorporate the neo-liberal view into an cost-efficient economic and social system.Neoliberalism comes with some major issues as mentioned all through the essay, some of which are the increase in gap between rich and poor, increase in unemployment rate and after effects from globalization. However, these issues can be solved with one basic solution the Government should partially take care of the market in the bes t way it can. To start of, the government should prioritize the welfare system so that less privileged individuals can get enough financial support to live a safe life. If the world is only dependent on laws of neo-liberalism, less privileged individuals mold it impossible to earn any chance to thrive nor enhance their economic conditions, however, they will get the opportunity to broaden their family budgets and go achieve their goals, when the government provides financial back-up to them. Personally, I am of the belief that its nations duty to support members of the society and inspire them to reveal their potentials for nation and themselves. later the legislative council should consider providing jobs for people. Some of the nations are aiding unemployed people by offering living expenses and find the jobs for them. Due to this, there has been a remarkable reduction in the unemployment rate in those countries. Finally, it will be right-hand if the nation controls how much t he country should be globalized. Globalization, due to its profit-making motive, has the potential to promote cultural neglect. Therefore, itll be vital for the government to supervise the balance between folk cultures and new cultures that both globalization and neo-liberalism have created. What is liberalism? I ask again. Some say it is the maximum level of freedom, others say its a faade for exploitation. Truth is, it is simply what we make it. Major economist like Milton Friedman has enlightened us on the positive consequences of liberalism such as economic growth. While others such as Macedo and Hartely, highlight the weaknesses of liberalisms, emphasizing on how it has the potential to brain-wash individuals, due to the placebo effect that liberalism is the ultimate solution to all economic and social issues as well as its hidden discrimination against females respectively. After brutal evaluation of liberalism, it is safe to say that the viral spread of globalization has ma ke it inevitable, so as mentioned earlier the best way to fully practice this system is through the corporation of the government as well as the private sector in the right proportions.CITATIONSFriedman, M.B.(2015). In praise of liberalism An legal opinion of liberal political thought from the 17th century totoday. Review of coetaneous philosophy, 14,11-36.Greener, B.K.(2011). Liberalism and the use of forceCore themes and conceptual tensions. Alternatives Global, Local,political,36(3)Hartley.C.& Watson(2010). Is a feminist politicalliberalism possible? Journal of Ethics & Social Philosophy, 5(1), 121-142Higgins, T.E.(2010). Feminism as liberalism A tributeto the work of Martha Nussbaum Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, 19(1).Isaacs, D.M.(2014). An unexpected frond Liberalismsresponse to corporate political spending. Suffolk University Law Review,47(2),1-30Macedo, S. (2012). Hauerwas, Liberalism, and PublicReasons Terms of conflict? Law and Contemporary Problems, 75(4)Pheiffer, C.F.(2013). Review of resilient liberalismin Europes political economy. The journal of philosophical Economics. 7(1),1-5diZerega, G.(2011). Spontaneous order and liberalisms Gordian relation to democracy. Independent review,16(2)

Saturday, March 30, 2019

The Nature And Role Of The Financial System Finance Essay

The Nature And Role Of The monetary System finance Essay monetary system is a mechanics where scotch shift solveivities fag end be done. The economic activities can be done through the fundamental interaction amongst fiscal institutions and the monetary merchandise. The purposes of this interaction argon to fling on fund and providing honorarium facilities for the financing of mercenary activities. With the outcome of Moslem finance, the dual monetary systems being introduce. In dual fiscal system the conventional monetary systems operating post by side with the Islamic pecuniary systems.The Islamic fiscal system consists of the role of quadruplet essential apparatuss The Islamic situateing institutions, Takaful, Islamic Capital Market and Islamic specie grocery store place. The structure of this fiscal system whitethorn consist of nimietyise and non- specialize financial institutions, of unionised and unorganized financial markets, of financial ins truments and service which facilitate conveying of gold. It in like manner comprises of procedures and practices adopted in the Islamic financial markets. The operation and mechanism of the financial system is scrutinized by Bank Negara Malaysia advisory board and Securities consignment Syariah Advisory Board to ensure compliance of Islamic rules and regulations.The Islamic financial institutions which be govern and control under Bank Negara Malaysia argon the organizations that mobilize the determineors savings, and provide financing, acting as creditor or in the form of jacket venture or financing in the form of profit and qualifying sharing (PLS). They besides provide various financial services to the commwholey, in percenticular business organizations. The activities ordain be par pose ining in financial assets much(prenominal) as deposits, loans, securities or dealing in real assets such as machinery, equipment, subscriber lines of goods and real estate. The ac tivities of different financial institutions may be both specialized or their buy the farm may be overlap. They may be categorize base on the basis of their particular activity or the dot of their specialization with relation to savers or borrowers with whom they customarily deal or range of mountains of activity or the type of ownership argon some of the criteria which be often used to classify a large subjugate and mixture show of financial institutions which exist in the economy. pecuniary institutions ar divided into cussing and non-banking institutions. The banking institutions tradition completelyy participate in the economys payments mechanism, i.e., they provide minutes services, their deposit liabilities constitute a major part of the national bullion put out, and they can, as a whole, ca-ca deposits or credit, which is bills and Banks, subject to legal reserve requirements, can arrive at credit by creating phone calls against themselves. Financial insti tutions be also classified as intermedi read/write memory and non-intermediaries. As the term indicates, intermediaries intermediate between savers and directors they modify money as comfortably as mobilize savings their liabilities ar towards the net savers, charm their assets atomic number 18 from the investors or borrowers. Non-intermediary institutions do the loan business but their resources are non directly obtained from the savers. All banking institutions are intermediaries. Many non-banking institutions also act as intermediaries) and when they do so they are known as Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries.The topic of Financial Intermediaries in MalaysiaIn this section, our task is to survey the adorn and identify the institutional players. By describing what financial intermediaries look like today, it is also revealing to see how financial intermediaries fox evolved over the last century.institutional PlayersThe banking system in Malaysia, which is the major component of the financial sector, consists of Bank Negara Malaysia, commercialised banks, Islamic banks, worldwide Islamic banks, Investment bank, early(a)(a) non bank institutions and money brokers. Which are all regulated and supervised by Bank Negara Malaysia.The a nonher(prenominal) non-bank institutions are supervised by other government agencies. These institutions can be divided into four major groups, consisting of the development finance institutions, the saving institutions, the prospicient and tribute silver, and a group of other financial intermediaries, comprising of building societies, building block charges and property trusts, leasing companies, factoring companies, credit token companies, venture capital companies, special enthronization agencies and several financial institutions such as the National owe Corporation (Cagamas) and Credit Guarantee Corporation.The traditional banking system role has been to execute long-term loans and fund them by issu ing perfectly-term deposits.1But banking systems are prohibited from engaging in securities market activities such as securities underwriting or the sale of trust gold. Therefore, the current design of non-bank financial institution are allowed to deal in the securities market a part of providing services which are similar to the banking system.The contribution of to each one non-bank financial institutions insurance companies and pension funds they nail investment funds from their customers, twain of these institutions place their money in a variety of money-earning investments. Leasing companies they purchase equipment/asset and then l repose to businesses for a set number of divisions. Factoring companies provide specialized forms of credit to businesses by qualification loans and purchasing accounts receivable at a discount, usually assumes right for collecting the debt, specialize in bill processing and collections and to take value of economies of scale. Market makers as an agent that offer to buy or lot security ( work in securities),2storage the securities and insured the securities against loss, provide margin credit,3 property management account services.4Trust funds pool the funds of numerous shrimpy investors and purchase large quantities of securities, offer a big variety of funds designed to appeal to most investment strategies, allow the small investors to obtain the benefits of lower transaction costs in purchasing securities and sicken the risk by diversifying the portfolio. The National owe Corporation is to promote the substitute(prenominal) mortgage market in Malaysia, with the issuance of secondhand mortgage securities, Cagamas Berhad effects the function of an intermediary to bring to arresther the master(a) lenders of housing loans and investors of long-term funds.EvolutionThe evolution of financial intermediation in Malaysia is reflected in remit 1. tabulate 1 shows the major financial intermediaries by assets and also by per centum share (in parentheses) from 1960 to 2000. To the extent that we can view the pace of financial intermediation as a horse race, thither seem to be a clear winners and losers. For example, in name of sexual relation importance the winners are unit trust, Cagamas Berhad, leasing companies, factoring companies and venture capital companies. Commercial banks and finance companies are losers.These findings hiking some interesting questions. First, what caused the change in the mix of financial intermediaries? In this section, we will examine this evolutionary process via three factors.Deregulation of become-to doe with RateInterest rate deregulation that affects loan determine takes its earlier form.5Canada, in 1960, was the first to deregulate its interest rate. Other countries deregulated in the eighties or thereafter.6This deregulation allows more freedom and activity to the banks and other institutions to government issue revolutionary depository products as well as diversified short and long term credit instruments.7Leightner and Lovell (1998) state that some relaxation to the banks portfolio were part of the liberalization that enables bank to diversify investment to private as well as the unconnected equity.8This do possible with the establishment of the foreign transposition market and the expansion of the underwriting activities of the financial intermediaries. Liberalization in Japan and Germany for instance, brings naked as a jaybird paradigm to the roles of the banking institutions. The bank in Germany and Japan is no longer to be a creditor, but can also be the equity holder and in the board of directors and management. Liberalization of the banking industry, for example in Malaysia and some other countries, take banking institution into a rude(a) dimension that is the establishment of Islamic banking.9The increasing demand on the interest free banking offer by the Islamic financial institutions leads many conventional b anks to offer Islamic riposte or rather known as dual banking. This development happens to Muslim and non-Muslim countries.The results show that the man-to-mans prefer to diversify their investment other than deposits. In particular, they invest in securities such as declinations, bonds and unit trusts. Therefore, freshly investment in unit trust for the small saver altered permanently the financial landscape.The Institutionalization of Financial MarketsInstitutionalization refers to the fact that more and more funds in Malaysia have been flowing indirectly into the financial markets through financial intermediaries, particularly pension funds, trust funds and insurance companies rather than directly from savers. As a result, these institutional players have become much more important in the financial markets relative to individual investors.What caused institutionalization? Quite simply, it was driven by the step-up of these financial intermediaries, particularly pension and u nit trust.10 tribute fund growth was encouraged by government policy. Tax laws, for instance, encourage employers to help their employees by substituting pension benefits for wages. This is good for employees because they do non pay taxes on their pension benefits until they are received after retirement.Unit trusts gained considerably from these changes in pension plan laws. Defined contribution plans were allowed to include unit trust on the menu of assets for which plan members could choose. In addition, the increasing attr progressiveness of specialized funds such as bond funds and index funds has also fueled unit trust fund growth.The Transformation of conventional BankingThe fact that banks are exposed to the non-performing loans that stood at 9.1% for the achievements of 1997 to 1999 and it seems to us that banking is a declining industry. However, first, the supposed decline of commercial banking is limited to a decline in the relative importance of commercial banking. A s shown in Table 1, the decline of commercial banks assets as a fraction of total intermediated assets from 43.4% in 1980 to 41.3% in 2001. Table 1 also shows that banking industry assets actually increased between 1960 and 2000. In other words, bank assets have actually increased just not as fast as the assets of other financial intermediaries. Second, many of the bracing innovative activities in which banks engage are not reflected on bank balance sheets as assets even though they add significantly to bank revenue.11These include, for example, handicraft in interest rate and currency swaps, merchandising first derivative instruments and issuing credit guarantees.Third, banks have a strong comparative profit in lending to individuals and small businesses.12Finally, banks have joined forces with a number of other types of financial intermediaries.13For example, banks have combined with unit trust funds, merchandiser banks, insurance companies and finance companies. Bank acqui sitions of non-bank financial intermediaries are part of broader integration of the entire financial services industry.Diagram 1 Structure of regulative FrameworkMinister of Land and Co-operative DevelopmentLicensing of Brokers RepresentativesTrading Adviser Representatives stemma Managers RepresentativesMinister of FinanceMinister of Domestic Trade Consumer AffairsSecurities representation Act 1993Securities patience Act 1983Registrar of CompaniesSecurities CommissionFuture Industry Act 1993Companies Act 1965Cooperative Act 1993Kuala Lumpur Stock exchange(KLSE)BNMIslamic Banking Act 1983Licensing ofDealers RepresentativesInvestment Adviser RepresentativesFund Managers RepresentativesSecurities clear Automated vane Sdn Bhd (SCANS)Malaysian Central Depository Sdn Bhd (MCD)Kuala Lumpur Commodity Exchange(KLCE)Malaysian Futures Clearing Corporation Sdn Bhd (MFCC)Kuala Lumpur Options Financial Futures Exchange(KLOFFE)Malaysian Monetary Exchange(MME)Malaysian Derivative Clear ing House Sdn Bhd (MDCH)Table 1 Malaysia Assets of the Financial System, 1960-2000As at end of (RM million)19601970198019902000Banking System2,356(66.3)7,455(64.1)54,346(73.3)223,500(69.8)829,900(66.8)Central Bank1,114(31.4)2,422(20.8)12,994(17.5)37,500(11.7)148,900(12.0)Commercial Banks1,232(34.7)4,460(38.4)32,186(43.4)130,600(40.8)513,600(41.3)Finance Companies10(0.3)531(4.6)5,635(7.6)39,400(12.3)109,400(8.8)Merchant Banks2,229(3.0)11,100(3.5)36,900(3.0)Discount Houses42(0.4)1,292(1.7)4,900(1.5)21,100(1.7)Non-Bank FinancialIntermediries1,197(33.7)4,167(35.9)19,807(26.7)96,900(30.2)413,100(33.2)Provident and Pension Funds733(20.6)2,717(23.4)11,370(15.3)51,800(16.2)217,600(17.5)Life and General InsuranceFunds103(2.9)439(3.8)2,476(3.3)10,300(3.2)52,200(4.2)Development Financial Institutions113(1.0)2,193(3.0)6,000(1.9)25,100(2.0)Savings Institutions267(7.5)645(5.5)2,463(3.3)10,000(3.1)32,300(2.6)Other Intermediaries93(2.6)233(2.0)1,305(1.8)19,800(6.2)85,900(6.9)Total3,55311,62274,1533 20,4001243,000Source Bank Negara Malaysia, yearly Reports (various issues)Financial MarketsFinancial markets are the c take parts or an arrangement that provide facilities for get and selling of financial claims and services the corporations, financial institutions, individuals and governments trade in financial products in these markets either directly or through brokers and dealers on organized exchanges or off-exchanges. The players on the demand and supply sides of these markets are financial institutions, agents, brokers, dealers, borrowers, lenders, savers, and others who are interlinked by the laws, packs, covenants and communication networks. Financial markets are sometimes classified as primary (direct) and utility(prenominal) (indirect) markets. The primary markets deal in the new financial claims or new securities and, therefore, they are also known as new issue markets. On the other hand, secondary markets deal in securities already issued or existing or outstanding. The primary markets mobilize savings and supply fresh or additional capital to business units. Although secondary markets do not contribute directly to the supply of additional capital, they do so indirectly by rendering securities issued on the primary markets liquid. Stock markets have both primary and secondary market segments.Very often financial markets are classified as money markets and capital markets, although there is no essential difference between the two as both perform the same function of transferring resources to the producers. This conventional distinction is based on the differences in the period of maturity of financial assets issued in these markets. While money markets deal in the short-term claims (with a period of maturity of one year or less), capital markets do so in the long-term (maturity period above one year) claims. Contrary to popular usage, the capital market is not only co-extensive with the stock market but it is also much wider than the stock marke t. Similarly, it is not al shipway possible to include a given participant in either of the two (money and capital) markets alone. Commercial banks, for example, belong to both. While treasury bills market, call money market, and commercial bills market are examples of money market, stock market and government bonds market are examples of capital market. Keeping in view different purposes, financial markets have also been classified into the avocation categories (a) organized and unorganized, (b) formal and open, (c) official and parallel, and (d) domestic and foreign. There is no particular connotation with which the words unorganized and informal are used in this context. They are quite often used interchangeably. The financial transactions which take place outside the well-established exchanges or without systematic and orderly structure or arrangements constitute the unorganized markets. They generally refer to the markets in villages or uncouth areas, but they exist in urb an areas also. Interbank money markets and most foreign exchange markets do not have organized exchanges. But they are not unorganized markets in the same way the rural markets are. The informal markets are said to usually involve families and small groups of individuals lending and borrow from each other. This description cannot be strictly applied to the foreign exchange markets, but they are also mostly informal markets. The nature, meaning, and scope of activities of these types of markets will be discussed later in the book.As mentioned earlier, financial systems deal in financial services and claims or financial assets or securities or financial instruments. These services and claims are many and varied in character. This is so because of the transmutation of motives behind borrowing and lending. The stage of development of the financial system can often be judged from the diversity of financial instruments that exist in the system. It is not possible here to discuss individ ually the nature of various financial claims that exist in the financial system.The financial assets represent a claim to the payment of a sum of money sometime in the approaching (repayment of principal) and/or a periodical (regular or not so regular) payment in the form of interest or dividend. With regard to bank deposit or government bond or industrial debenture, the holder receives both the regular periodic payments and the repayment of the principal at a bushel date. Whereas with regard to ordinary share or eternal bond, only periodic payments are received (which are regular in the moorage of perpetual bond but may be irregular in the case of ordinary share). Financial securities are classified as primary (direct) and secondary (indirect) securities. The primary securities are issued by the ultimate investors directly to the ultimate savers as ordinary shares and debentures, while the secondary securities are issued by the financial intermediaries to the ultimate savers a s bank deposits, units, insurance policies, and so on. For the purpose of certain types of analysis, it is also useful to talk about ownership securities (viz., shares) and debt securities (viz., debentures, deposits). Financial instruments differ from each other in respect of their investment characteristics which, of course, are interdependent and interrelated. Among the investment characteristics of financial assets or financial products, the following are important (i)liquidity, (ii) marketability, (iii) reversibility, (iv) transferability, (v) transactions costs, (vi) risk of default or the degree of capital and income uncertainty, and a wide array of other risks, (vii) maturity period, (viii) tax status, (ix) options such as come back or buy-back option, (x) volatility of prices, and (xi) the rate of return-nominal, effective, and real.DEFINITION AND SCOPE OF A bully MARKET (THE ECONOMIC FUNCTIONS OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS)The previous section gave a brief overview of the m ajor types of financial institutions. To understand why financial institutions exist and the economic services that they provide, it is important to understand the different ways in which funds are transferred within an economy between businesses, government, and households (economic entities) that need to borrow funds (borrowers) and those that have surplus funds to lend (investors). In a very frank economy without financial institutions, transactions between, different borrowers and lenders are difficult to arrange. Borrowers and savers incur significant search and development costs assay to find each other. Transactions between borrowers and savers may also be limited, because few financial contracts involve only two parties. Similarly, risks are great, since individual entities have little or no knowledge of each other and little ability to monitor each others actions. Also, the transactions costs may be so high that small entities may be grudging to supply funds. Investors also have little ability to diversify their risk, ascribable to the high cost of many financial contracts.Supplier of funds surplus (savings) unitsLenders Housesolders, companies, governments, rest of the worldsDemand of funds deficit unitBorrowers Housesolders, companies, governments, rest of the worldsFinancial MarketsFinancial institutions help to reduce transactions, search, monitoring, and information costs. They provide risk management services and allow investors to diversify their risk and hold portfolios of financial assets by creating ways of indirect financing. Financial institutions also play important roles in an competent payment system between entities and in managing pure risk (insurance). The velocity panel of Figure 1 shows the role of financial institutions as intermediaries between borrowers and lenders.The term primary securities refers to direct financial claims against individuals, governments, and non-financial firms. A simple economy without any financial institutions would accommodate only direct financial claims or financial contracts. In effect, a borrower gives an investor a financial contract or direct financial claim or security that promises a stake in the borrowers company (i.e., shares of stock) or future payments returning the do invested plus interest (i.e., a bond, or some other separate of IOU). These are examples of direct or primary securities. As an economy develops, markets pop for trading direct securities. Some function as auction markets, where trading is carried out in one physical location, as occurs on the spick-and-span York Stock Exchange others function as over-the-counter markets, where trading is carried out by distant contacts, perhaps over the phone and computer, as on the National Association of Security Dealers Automated Quotation (NASDAQ) system. Loans made directly with borrowers are another example of a primary or direct security, where a direct contract is made between a borrower and a bank or other individual lender. Table 1.2 provides examples of primary securities in the first column. The financial assets owned by banks, insurance companies, and mutual funds, such as loans, bonds, and common stock, are all direct securities, where the lenders give funds to the borrowers, and the lenders receive financial contracts guaranteeing repayment of funds plus interest or shares of ownership in the borrower companies.Investors lend funds in return for a direct or primary security. supplemental securities, in contrast, are financial liabilities of financial institutions-that is, claim against financial institutions. In Table 1.2, financial institutions liabilities-deposits, policyholder reserve obligations, and mutual fund shares-are secondary securities or claims against financial institutions. In effect, financial institutions created secondary securities that offer advantages over primary securities or direct financial claims.EXAMPLES OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SECURITIESPrima ry SecuritiesSecondary SecuritiesCommercial loansSavings depositsMortgage loansTransaction depositsConsumer loansCertificates of depositGovernment bondsInsurance policyholders militiaCorporate bonds vernacular fund sharesCorporate common stockPension fund reservesTable 1.2 shows this type of indirect financing.Unfortunately, like most fields, finance sometimes uses confusing terminology. Readers should carefully avoid confusing the use of the words primary and secondary in this discussion with their use in other contexts. For example, students who have antecedently studied corporate finance or investments may have encountered the terms primary and secondary markets primary markets are those for originally issued securities, and secondary markets plow resale of securities. In the context of this chapter, primary and secondary distinguish between issuers of securities and not between changes in securities ownership.PRIMARY AND SECONDARY MARKETIn a market economy the existence of fin ancial markets can greatly ease the process of exchanging loanable funds for financial claims. A firm that wants to borrow money can go to the market in the knowledge that those with funds to lend will be there. The process is made easier still if specia identify traders are known to be actively participating in the markets, buying and selling financial claims on their own account, thereby smoothing over days on which trading is thin or when there is an excess of emf borrowers or lenders. Further economies are achieved if agents or brokers can be employed to enter the market representing the customer to buy and sell securities. The existence of the market serves borrowers and lenders equivalent by reducing the search costs which each has to incur to get in touch with the other, and also master(prenominal)tains confidence in market prices. Markets do not always have a physical location. A market for loanable funds might consist of nothing more than a list of known dealers who can be contacted by letter or telephone. The International Stock Exchange is the centre of the securities market. It has both a physical trading site which is used for a very small number of securities, and a highly developed system of trading which takes place in a number of locations via computer linkages. The discount market is another traditional financial market, but one which ope range without a physical site at all.This market operates by representatives of the discount houses maintaining close daily contact with the leading banks, either by telephone or personal visits, to determine where trading opportunities are. 2 types of financial markets exist for real and financial assets, and it is important to distinguish between them. A primary market for financial assets deals in new issues of all types of loanable funds. Transactions in primary markets result either in the initiation or in the extinction of financial claims. The creation of a new loan causes the transfer of cash fr om a lender to a borrower in exchange for a financial claim on the latter. The claim is snuff out when the cash, usually interest and principal, has been repaid to the lender. A secondary market is a market in old issues. Transactions in secondary markets do not create or extinguish financial claims. Cash does not pass between borrowers and lenders, but existing issues simply change hands. The borrower remains insensible(p) by the transaction while the lender transfers the right of repayment to another. The main economic function of the secondary markets is to support the operations of the associated primary markets for new issues by providing liquidity to lenders. In the absence of a developed secondary market an individual saver might be very loath to lend out money for long periods of time, except at rates of high interest too high to be attractive to borrowers. If the chances of making a sale when necessary are unacceptably low, no lender would commit funds. Therefore an active secondary market is essential for an active primary one. However, there is no guarantee that the lender will receive back in sale proceeds the full amount at the time they are sold, since markets fluctuate all the time, and prices are not constant.Secondary markets also contribute to the efficiency of the primary market by providing pricing information. In the share market, for example, the current prices of traded securities significantly reduce the problem of consideration a price on new issues with similar risk profiles, and information from the secondary market will also influence the attitude of potential participants in primary markets. Figure 3.2 illustrates the connections between primary and secondary markets. not all primary markets have secondary markets associated with them and some securities are issued for which there are no secondary markets

Meeting Health and Well-being Needs in Day Care Centre

Meeting Health and Well-being Needs in Day C ar CentreDay Cargon CentreThis assay ordain be the design of a solar day keeping reduce that impart meet the needs of 3-5 year olds cognitive, somatic, emotional and social development. This pass on show examples of how to meet these needs and research to back up the work ons.cognitive developmentBetween these grows lots of cognitive development is going on as they learn from whats around them, this is where my day look at concentrate on bottom of the inning swear out. In terms of language acquisition peasantren are employ sentences made up of much than 4 words, which are intelligible to every mavin, non just familiar listeners. They result also ask how and why questions (Bhalla, 2013), and up to(p) to answer these questions knowing what type of answer is required of them, despite whitethornhap giving the wrong answer (Hussey-Gardner, 1992).They ordain be learning the meanings of words, which result wield them desc ribe things and tell stories. One issue that entrust engender across is the over generalization of grammar rules, for example a minor whitethorn use goed, wented fishes (Hussey-Gardner, 1992). This supports the language acquisition device (LAD) surmisal from Chomsky, a tike assumed and applied the grammar rules from their universal grammar because they could not allow copied or larn these words from adults (Albery, et al., 2008). thus far the flaw with this speculation is that it doesnt prove a child has a LAD, although it supports that children dont learn language finished imitation al iodine, they could learn it through other interactions (DAgostino, 2001). In my day complaint nerve centre I depart serve up prevent over initiation of grammar rules by repeating the sentence back with the correct grammar in place, cultivation books with different tenses, ensuring I use the words which are frequently misapply in the right context. I testament also encourage their s aving in general by acquire them to describe things, and asking them to relieve their activities.Vygotsky claimed that children at this age leave al one(a) talk to themselves in order to sponsor complete tasks, this is a very important stage in cognitive development because speaking out loud whilst trouble resolution will eventually lead to internal olfactory modalityings (Albery, et al., 2008). In the day care centre I will inspection and repair encourage this by giving children tasks by giving them spoken instructions so they stop repeat these instructions to themselves whilst completing the task. Using language to assist in problem solving occurred in what Vygotsky called the egocentric speech stage. This stage has a connection to Pia astonishs pre-operational stage, where Piaget also believed that children of this age were egocentric and had egocentric speech (Albery, et al., 2008). However Piaget didnt come to the conclusion Vygotsky did that egocentric speech turned into internal thoughts, Piaget thought egocentric speech just disappeared (Blunden, 1997).Piaget also believed that within this stage children make believe mis upshots due to centration, which is not being able to think of two things at once. He showed this using a balance scale task where children had to take into account distance and number of weights to see which side will go down (Waring, 2006). A criticism for Piagets trial is that it was not something children silent and are used to and therefore harder for them to relate to the test (Waring, 2006) .I could encourage children think less centrally by using Vygotsky scaffold surmisal (Chaiklin, 2003). They preserve solve a puzzle on their own winning only one element into account, then with the help of a more knowing adult they can solve a puzzle taking into account two elements, they then should be able to do this themselves. The scaffolding image from Vygotskys zone of proximal development theory is the idea that m ore knowing adults can guide children through what they can do by themselves, what they can do with help and eventually doing it themselves. The problem with this theory is that it doesnt take into learnation childrens personal abilities, if they are not particularly good at a skill, no amount of help will get them to succeed by themselves. It also doesnt consider childrens motivation or desire to complete the task (Chaiklin, 2003) sensualChildren at the age of 3-5 years are developing their fine and raw motor skills. They can get more involved in physical conform to, like climbing, or using tricycles. They can hold things surrounded by their thumb and finger rather than their whole fists and manipulate clay (Australian Government division of mixer Services, 2011).To help develop their fine motor skills I can start by giving the children bigger pencils and scissors and gradually sacrifice them smaller ones to use. I would also give them bods to draw, at first acquiring them to draw along dotted lines, then written mattering a shape and them getting them to draw it free hand (Bhalla, 2013).Trawick-Smith (2010) noted in his news report that motiavtion is an important factor in childrens physical development espeshially in their tax revenue motor skills. He believes that children relate to make believe and role vie bets and that they devlop physically when they can reflect on their actions and see what their actions do and tonus like. So in my day care centre I will have an area for physical sessions with a mirror coverng one side. In these sessions I will relate movements to characters e.g. marching soldiers or woddling penguins. As intimately as having an outdoor climbing frame which children can play on with each other. The problem with Trawick-Smiths (2010) ideas are that it is hard to motivate a large group of children in the selfsame(prenominal) agency.The idea of physical employment sessions can also be supported by Banduras theory of ob servational learning which came most from his Bobo Doll experiment. The children now have the ability, biologically, to copy the behaviours and to learn new fine or gross motor skills. I need to offer the opportunity to observe the behaviours, for them to retain the behaviour, imitiate the behaviour, and repeat these behaviours. However I must motiave them to repeat the actions and reward the success of repeated action (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, n.d.). The problem with this theory is that there is no garentee that a child will repeat the behaviour straight away it may take a while for the child to feel it is beneficial for them to repeat the action (Taylor, 2014).This is a very behaviourist way of looking at pysical development. The nature vs. nurse debate could be relevant here, as you could argue that the a child will devlop the ability to do these activites through muturation. However behaviourist will take the nuture root that the behvaiour is learnt til now the ability to learn it is innate (Keegan, 2002). spirit devlopmental theory takes on both approuches, at this age they are in the childhood stage (Keegan, 2002). At this stage they are gaining motor skillls heretofore because myelination is still in its early stages (the devlopment of the sheath around the axon stucture in the Central Nervous System) a child cannot transmit information as fast, the more it develops the more complex brain processes can be allowed (Fraser-Trill, 2010). This may result in differnent physical activites each child is able to do (MacFarlane Nierman, 2001). So in my day care center I will have 3 groups for physical activites seperating the different ability levels.SocialChildren between the ages of 3-5 will be riseing to interact with other children by kind in pretend play (Bhalla, 2013). They may try and play with toys provided sharing may be a difficult task for them at this age due to them being egocentric (Kamptner, 2014).Egocentrism is a theory put forward in Piagets pre-operational stage, he used the threesome mountains test to show that children could not picture soulfulness elses rack (Albery, et al., 2008). However the problem with Piagets theory is that the three mountains test is not relatable to children, they do not understand what is being asked of him. When Hughes and Donaldson carried out the Policeman test with children it showed that children could see from another point of affect because the task was more relatable as a hide-and-seek type game (Albery, et al., 2008).In my day care centre I will have circle time, each child will have a chance to say something about their day, one child will have a teddy bear, this will intend its their turn to talk, and everyone else in the circle must listen. This will help guide children into understanding others points of view.Egocentrism can also cause difficulties in sharing, taking turns, conflict when playing with each other and can be possessive over toys (Kamptner, 2014). I can try to reduce this in my day care centre by encouraging sharing by having a timer, when the timer ends the toy is given to another child.Also during this age group children are progressing from interactive play, which involves parallel play, where children can play with the same toys in the same area but not together, to eventually, cooperatively play together, which involves playing together with toys which makes it more organised, for example building something together (Kamptner, 2014).In my day care centre I will use Vygotskys scaffolding theory to assist the children in progressing through the two stages. At first I may have group of 2 children and one member of cater to complete a task, for example building a tower. Firstly the children will share the blocks to make one each with the ready eye of the member of staff, which will encourage parallel play. Next I will get the children to build something different each with the same blocks, by chance a tower and a building whi ch put together later on will make a castle, this will show that working together can achieve more. The contiguous stage will be getting the children to build a tower together, the member of staff with them will allot each of them a task to complete. After they will be asked to do the same but the children will organise themselves to cooperative play. The member of staff will be there to diffuse any conflicts that may arise, and to take in they are sharing properly. Another factor I will have to consider is ensuring the children are motivated and rewarded for playing nicely with each other. stirredAt this age children are becoming in tune with their emotions, they are starting to identify their own feelings, they can use words to express themselves which causes less frustration, have fears and are developing a sense of humour, visible functions in particular are funny to them. Its important for children to be able to identify emotions as they can still be overwhelmed by them i f they dont understand, however children need to understand their own emotions and others in like manner (Bullick, 2010).Piaget believed that children in the pre-operational stage could not feel empathy because they are too egocentric, however this was contradicted by the policeman test (Albery, et al., 2008). Now that its been supported that children can have empathy its important to develop it, one way of doing this could be through using a persona biddy. Persona dolls are doll that come in a range of shapes, colour, religion and abilities to help children relate to them. An adult will tell a story about the persona doll, the children then interact by suggesting how it makes them feel and how to make them feel better. For example the doll is scared of the dark, a child will move she is scared of the dark like me, I have a night light, we should get her one too or someone told the doll she couldnt play because she was a girl a child would respond someone said that to me once, I felt sad. Everyone should be allowed to play. This doll encourages them to not only identify their own emotions but also empathise with someone elses and what they can do to make themselves and others feel better (Brown, et al., 2012).Children who will help themselves or others with their emotions are using their maiden, which is one of the elements in Eriksons initiative vs guilt psychosocial stage. An initiative child will have a good self-esteem and confident in the activities they are doing. For example they may lead other peers to play a game, or get others to voice in on activities or make decisions for example collect their rise when its home time without being told. However low self-esteem or guilt can occur when this initiative is not praised, or criticised, this can lead to inhibition (McLeod, 2013). I can help raise initiative by encouraging role play games as groups. I may have a small group of children and one adult, the adult will nominate one child to make up roles and organise the game which they will all join in on, and the adult must try not to take over or discourage any of the ideas. The next day the adult will nominate a different child, this way all the children have a fair part to play and they are all gaining initiative. Eriksons theory is based on Freudian view of the conflicting id, ego and superego, however Erikson doesnt state how successfully judge these conflicts and the boundaries between each are vague. It also doesnt show how of if one of the conflict stages can effect another (McLeod, 2013).I could also complicate Bowlbys attachment theory here. Bowlby believed that children become attached to their primary care giver, and by this age they will be upset if they leave them (Keegan, 2002). To help with this transition I could let the parents be at the day care center together, to let them get used to it, and then they could bring a teddy from home that they could use a comfort if they start to get upset.In conclusion I will have to bear in mind a lot of aspects in order for the children in my day care centre to have the best development. It has been supported that role play, problem solving and an adult helping hand can go a long way in the development stages.ReferencesAlbery, I. P., Chandler, C., Field, A., Jones, D., Messer, D., Simon, M., Sterling, C. (2008). Complete Psychology (2nd ed.). (G. Davey, Ed.) capital of the United Kingdom British Libuary Cataloguing in Publication Data.Australian Government Department of Social Services. (2011, March 10). Physical growing 3-4 year olds. Retrieved Febuary 17, 2014, from Rasing Children http//raisingchildren.net.au/articles/physical_health_from_age_3_to_4_pbs.htmlBhalla, S. (2013, April 25). Parenting Tips Sorted by develop Preschoolers. Growth and Development 3-5 years. Retrieved Febuary 13, 2014, from One Tough Job https//www.onetoughjob.org/tips/preschoolers/growth-a-development-3-5-yearsBlunden, A. (1997). Vygotsky and the Dialectical Method. Ret rieved Febuary 13, 2014, from Marxists.org http//www.marxists.org/ pull in/vygotsky/works/comment/vygotsk1.htmBrown, B., Johnson, M., Louth, J., Shepherd, M., Spencer, M., Wilson, M. (2012). Case Studies. Retrieved Febuary 19, 2014, from Persona Doll Training www.persona-doll-training.orgBullick, T. (2010). ripening Miracles. The first six years with your child. (2nd ed.). Alberta Alberta Health Services.Chaiklin, S. (2003). The Zone of Proximal Development in Vygotskys Analysis of culture and Instruction. In V. S. Ageyev, B. Gindis, A. Kozulin, S. M. Miller, Vygotskys Educational Theory in Cultural Context (pp. 39-61). Cambridge The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.DAgostino, F. (2001). Noam Chomsky. Retrieved Febuary 13, 2014, from Chomsky.info www.chomsky.info/bios/2001-02.htmFraser-Trill, R. (2010, August 26). Definition of Myelination. Retrieved Febuary 26, 2014, from About.com tweenparenting.about.com/od/physicalemotionalgrowth/a/Difinition-of-Myelination.htm lHoughton Mifflin Harcourt. (n.d.). Physical Devlopment Age 2-6. Retrieved Febuary 18, 2014, from CliffNotes http//www.cliffsnotes.com/sciences/psychology/development-psychology/physical-cognitive-development-age-26/physical-development-age-26Hussey-Gardner, D. B. (1992). Language Development. Retrieved Febuary 13, 2014, from Parenting Me http//www.parentingme.com/languageKamptner, L. (2014, January 7). musical accompaniment Childrens Devlopment 3-5 year olds Social Development. Retrieved Febuary 18, 2014, from Institute for Child Devlopment and Family Relations http//icdfr.csusb.edu/documents/phandoutsocialdevelopment-2.pdfKeegan, G. (2002). Developmental Psychology. Kilmarnock Learning and Teaching Scotland.MacFarlane, M., Nierman, M. (2001). Life Span Development. Retrieved Febuary 26, 2014, from Annenberg Learner http//www.learner.org/series/discoveringpsychology/development/dev_flash.htmlMcLeod, S. (2013). Erik Erikson. Retrieved Febuary 19, 2014, from evidently Psychology w ww.simplypsychology.org/Erik-EriksonTaylor, V. (2014, Febuary 18). The Disadvantages of Observational Learning. Retrieved Febuary 18, 2014, from ehow http//www.ehow.co.uk/info_8571259_disadvantages-observational-learning.htmlTrawick-Smith, J. (2010). From dissemblepen to PlaygroundThe Importance of Physical Play for the. Eastern Connecticut Head Start Body Start theme Center for Physical Development and Outdoor Play. Retrieved Febuary 17, 2014Waring, P. (2006). Cognition and Development. Retrieved Febuary 13, 2014, from Psychology 4a http//www.psychology4a.com/cognitive_development.htm

Friday, March 29, 2019

Cervical Cancer Major Public Health Issue Health And Social Care Essay

Cervical malignant neoplastic disease Major Public wellness give away Health And Social C ar EssayIntroductionCervical crabmeat is a study public wellness issue it is the second well-nigh cat valium crab louse among wo hands in the world, and genius of principal get along of decease by gynaecologic malignant tumour in developing countries. (I. Shahramian and colleagues 2011)Besides, cervical arousecer is one of the just somewhat pr miscellanea surfacet adapted and curable rottercer when it is detected early, and this is im disgorgeable to its s embarrassed progression, since it take some(prenominal) eld to grow from a noniceable precursor lesion.This key feature provides a large window of close to ten years or to a great extent for utile early sleuthing of the pre crabby personous lesion, and pr withalting its progression to trespassing(a) crabmeat.From this aspect, well coordinate barroom neares obtain been applied by high in fall out countries over the past 50 years, and induct issuinged in a remarkable decline in morbidity and mortality rate from this encroaching(a) affection.The back curriculum is a successful example for effective prevention from cervical crab louse, it has been used in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Sweden) this political platform was examined by the transnational Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in sixties and it was found that the mortality rate in these countries fell by nearly three- fourth, The most drastic decrease was marked in Iceland by 84 % and this was due to the wide buns age range for back in this coun accent.(whomb mountain)However, over the homogeneous period, developing countries have failed by intend of using the same chopine to reduce the burden of the sickness, and cervical cancer continues to menace the lives of thousands of women, this whitethorn be due to the escape of an effective prevention strategy.We exit try in this knockerer to revie w the epitopes of cervical cancer masking piece among Algerian women, to elucidate the salient barricades regarding natural covering and to highlight the principal cistrons influencing the individual wellness deportment, for this study, we imparting use the Health Belief pattern as a conceptual framework, we get out rationalise the structure of the Health Belief Model (Becker) and how the disparate inventions of the ensample could predict the womens wellness behavior regarding cervical neoplasm trial run , fin onlyy the application of this model as a direct framework to ground conductal discourses and to purify attitude of women regarding cancer cover song will be discussed.Epidemiology of cervical cancer/ global burden of the diseaseGlobal overviewWorldwide, cervical cancer is the second most familiar cause of remnant among women (ACCP2004) with an estimate of 493,000 refreshing cases, and 274,000 deaths occurring all(prenominal) year accord to the statis tics of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (GLOBOCAN, 2002)In 2008, 530000 naked cases were diagnosed, more than 85% of the global burden were registered in developing countries (where it perchs the most vulgar cancer seen in women and it accounts for 13% of all female cancers),In the same year, the cervical cancer was responsible for 275000 deaths, roughly 88% of which occurred in developing countries53000 cases in Africa, 31700 in Latin America and the Caribbean, and 159000 cases in Asia. (GLOBOCAN 2008)The get in below shows incidence of cervical cancer by country, it should be state that data from developing countries might be underestimated as the official statistics in these countries ar not accredited.http//globocan.iarc.fr/factsheets/cancers/cervix-bar.pngRegional overviewAlgeria is a large North African country, extended from the Mediterranean Sea down to the Sahara, with round 37 one thousand gazillion inhabitants.Algeria has a universe of 11,51mi llions of women whose ages argon 15 years and older, (WHO/ICO2010) which means that slightly the third of the Algerian population is at jeopardize of developing cervical cancer.Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among Algerian women after the breast cancer, Current estimates indicate that e precise year 1398 women be diagnosed with cervical cancer and 797 die from the disease (WHO/ICO2010)About 10, 5% of Algerian women ar estimated harbour cervical HPV, and about 77, 1% of cervical cancers in Algeria ar related to HPV 16 or 18. (WHO/ICO 2010)But we should note that even these statistics might be underestimated,The economic impact of cervical cancer is crossificantly heavy for the state. The treatment of a single diligent returns to about 2.5 million dinars ( 20,000), with this court wewe can turn over 2000 obnubilates ( contumely shield cost 20 ) and inject 30 women.Natural history of cervical cancer reason the exercise of developing cervical cancer is a crucial step to function an effective program of prevention.More than 99% cases of cervical cancer ar attributed to cervical HPV transmittance, which is a sexually transmitted disease (STD), the virus is acquired by twain men and women through sexual activity, the contagion is usually symptomless and transient.HPV is the most common STD in the world it affects about 50% to 80% of sexually active women at least once in their sprightliness ( ACCP 2004), they contract it in their teen, 20 or early 30s.There are more than 100 geno showcasesetters cases of HPV that have been place, and which are goed by order of their discovery, about 13 types can lead to invasive cervical cancer and they are known as high oncogenic hazard of infection of exposure ( 16,18,31,33,35,39,45,51,52,56,58,59,66) (WHO 2007)The two most common are 16 and 18 causing approximately 70% of all invasive cervical carcinoma (60% related to HPV 16 and 10% to HPV 18) the whom peopleThe separates types of HPV are known as low risk and they usually associated with genital warts ( oddly 6 and 11) which can grow in the genital part in both men and women (cervix, anus, vulva, vagina, penis, and scrotum) and they cause a significant morbidity.( WHO2007), They are very seldom associated with cervical cancer, but can lead to low grade changes in cervical cells which are very similar to those caused by high risk types. These low lesions are asymptomatic and temporary, however, in some circumstances can evolve and lead to high lesion or invasive cancer.Table summarizes the unalike stages leading to cervical cancer ( ACCP2004)HPV infectionLow-grade lesionsHigh-grade lesions encroaching(a) cancerHPV infection is extremely common among women of reproductive age. The infection can persist, lead to cervical abnormalities, or resolve on its own.Low-grade lesions are usually temporary and disappear over clipping. Some cases, however, progress to best lesions.High-grade lesions, the precursor to cerv ical cancer, are significantly less common than low-grade lesions. High- grade lesions can develop from low-grade ones or promptly from persistent HPV infection.Invasive cancer develops over the course of several years and is most common among women in their 50s and 60s.Source Adapted from PATH 2000.HPV is a necessary cause but not sufficient to progress from HPV infection to invasive cervical cancer, at that place are separate lifestyle factors that growing the probability to develop the cancer including high parity, young age at first delivery, being in polygamous marriage, women with economizes extramarital sexual family (D. Hammouda and colleagues 2004, 2011), long term use of oral contraception, tobacco smoking, certain dietetic deficiencies, poor sanitation, tenfold sex partner, low socio economic status, and living in a rural environment. In concomitant, co-infection with HIV, Chlamydia Trachomatis, and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV 2)., ( whomb people)HPV was inc riminated in numerous other anogenital cancer (anus, vulva, vagina, and penis) and cancers of the head and neck.Understanding that HPV is the primary underlying cause of cervical cancer has focused tutelage on the potential of early detection of the infection through the cervical exhibit.Screening for cervical cancer is found on the use of the teatanicolaou cytology technic (Pap office tally) in which docs or nurses expose the cervix by speculum and remove cells from the squamous epithelium and transformation zone to detect abnormal precancerous cells.The American College of obstetrics and Gynaecology evoke that women should discover the first cover version try 3 years after the first sexual intercourseThey also press that women should continue receiving cytology screening yearly until the age of 30, from than they can receive it every 3 years.According to the same college, menopausal women have a subvert chance to develop abnormal cervical cells however, there is no s wiftness age limit to stop the screening. ( Whom people)Primary prevention have focused on hygiene and reducing risks factor by reducing the number of sexual partners and encouraging the use of barrier contraceptive especially condoms,( ACCP2004) recently a new vaccinum which has the potential to protect against certain type of HPV infection (16 and 18) has been licensed to underpin the preventive program against cervical cancer. The vaccine has been used in many developed countries and shown great results in reducing the burden of the disease, but it has not been introduced in Algeria yetPap topographic shoot as a cervical cancer screening testAlgeria is one of the developing countries where cervical cancer remains a major wellness public issue. although the application of screening program, a large population remain under screened, the outcome are very modest and the incidence of cervical cancer is always high and this could be contributed to the drop of awareness about scre ening test among women and some specific cultural wellness intuitive feelings barriers, not surprisingly that large proportion of the patients are diagnosed with advanced stage of the invasive cervical cancer, interestingly, even most of the wellness care providers have never had a pap smear.( ref risk factor ).Studies show that spatiotemporal cervical cancer screening is modest in low resources countries whence a low participation in Pap smear and a low follow up when it is done the first time. It has been stated that screening program in these countries and even among minorities and aboriginal women faced many obstacles pretermit of sufficient laboratory infrastructure, high cost of health care, wanting(predicate) instruct health care providers, absence of providers recommendation and a lack of separate educational programs in these countries that indicate the risk factors of this disease, the importance of screening at early stage, and the power of the Pap smear test to de tect the disease in its premalignant stage and so the possibility of full cure and prevention. (S.T. Tavafian 2012)In addition to these funds and human resources deficiencies that can hindrance an effective and organised screening intervention, there is also the lack of acquaintance from the patients regarding preventable cervical cancer as well as the socio-cultural status barriers , oft(prenominal)(prenominal) as embarrassment from pelvic examination that have been argued as one of leading obstacle to not receiving screening test,(S.T. Tavafian 2012) another(prenominal) factor is the fear of plain and the entrenched belief that cancer cannot be cured , the lack of best knowledge about screening utilizes this extreme fatalistic attitude about cancer among different countries lead women to consider diagnosis as a death sentence and so the avoidance of the test,(V.Thomas and colleagues 2005) there is also projects identified religious beliefs, the limited language ability as another major sensed barrier, the lack of accessible support, the low socio economic status and the inadequate functional health literacy.There is a study that has been conducted in Spanish among low income Latinas, that found that women with inadequate functional health literacy are 16 times less likely to receive a Pap smear test (S.T. Tavafian 2012)It has been illustrated that Individuals beliefs, ethnic background, knowledge about a crabby infirmity are significantly interconnected with the healthcare seek and health forward motional demeanour, Al-Neggar and his colleagues reason that some misconceptions and wrong beliefs may conduct to the poor practice of cervical cancer screening among women, despite the adequate knowledge regarding the risk factors (Al-Neggar and colleague (2010).One of theoretical models that could be used to identify the warnminant of cancer screening and assess the capture of peoples beliefs on their decisions to take up cancer screening is the h ealth belief model.According to the concepts of this model, individuals are more likely to take up screening if they are actd abounding about their health, and they regard themselves as susceptible to develop cancer, believe that effective intervention would be beneficial to reduce the susceptibility and the severity of the condition.Health belief model as a theoretical framework for predicting doingsThe health belief model is one of the theory the most ordinarily used in health promotional material and health education, (chapter 4) it was developed in the early 1950s by a group of social psychologists to explain the wide sprinkle failure of people to adopt the disease preventive programs suggested and screening test recommended to detect and prevent the disease at its asymptomatic stage, later on it was applied to study the response of patients to diagnosed disease and their compliance with prescribed checkup regimens.(Nancy and colleagues 1984)This model aims to explain the patients thoughts process behind his preventive attitude kind of than his behaviour after getting the illness.The underlying concept of the model is that health behaviour and willingness of people to shut up in a preventive program or to take up a screening test are firm by personal beliefs and perception of the disease in addition to the different resources purchasable to prevent its occurrence, (chapter 4)The model provides guidelines to develop strategies for effective intervention and weaponation by allowing planners to understand the reasons for not compliance with the recommended suggested preventive systems.This model assumes that individuals health behaviour is determined by five psychological factors perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, ref perceived benefits and perceived barriers to effective compliance cues to put into action, recently, there are others constructs that have been added to the model called modifying or motivating factors such as crowd med ia initiatives, campaign, personal materials, social support, health professional and self-efficacy.(V.Thomas and collegues 2005)copier le tableauArticulation of cervical cancer screening behaviour to the HBM frameworkIn this section I will try through the constructs of the Health Belief Model to explain the relationship between womens belief and health behaviour in Algeria perceive susceptibility personal risk or susceptibility is referred to the personal belief about the likelihood of promise a disease (S.T. Tavafian 2012), it is one of the most powerful factor that influence people to adopt a healthy behaviour, the greater the perceived risk, the greater the likelihood of engaging in behaviours to decrease the risk( chapter4).For screening program, woman will be interested to take up a smear test if she is aware enough of the possibility to get cervical cancer by contracting HPV infection, and that she is exposed to this risk as long as she is sexually active.The HBM predicts t hat women are more likely to comply with cervical cancer screening recommendation if they believe that they have risk factor of cervical cancer (Glanz et and colleagues 2008), and vice versa, the belief of not being at risk for cervical cancer or HPV infection preclude (deter, empeche) women to engage in such program, And this is why most virgin women in Algeria underestimate the necessity( believe the futility) of smear test as they think they are protected from the risk of HPV infection because they are not married. Or in other words , because there is no sexual intercourse, virgin woman does not perceive her picture to cervical cancer, although studies show that HPV has been found in some female virgins, which means that the virus does not always need penetrating sex to be transmitted, And that it may be spread through non penetrating sexual get through and even within married women, the concept that HPV infection is related to multiple sex partner make them believe they are sa fe from the risk since they have one partner, ignoring the husband sexual behaviour, as many men in Algeria have extramarital sexual relationship underground that the wife unawares, and so she doesnt see herself as susceptible to the risk.Another worrying factor is that youngest women consider cancer to be an elderly disease, while older women according to cervical screening age limit might think that they are no longer at risk ref( V.Thomas 2005), and so there is a wrong perceive of susceptibility. perceive severity refers to the seriousness of the disease as assessed by the patient, it is usually based on medical information or personal knowledge from tele vision, radio or leaflets, or it may come from the belief of a person about the consequences that would create a exceptional disease whatever clinical such as death, disability, or social like family life and social relations (chapter4), (S.T. Tavafian 2012),For screening test, if women believe that cervical neoplasm is a seve re disease that would lead to serious difficulties for her and her family, she will view prevention as a priority and so she is more likely to receive a Pap smear test. Also having knowledge about Pap smear test and its importance to detect the invasive disease at early stage will motivate her to receive one, because many women realise the severity of cervical cancer but lack knowledge of screening program, and available swear out.Despite the recognition that cervical cancer is a serious issue, most of women in Algeria believe that there is no treatment, which make them see screening test as futile and this possibly reflects the religious beliefs and the cultural background that may influence their attitude,Algeria population as most of Muslims agree that illness, recovery and death are all determined from God, so The majority believe that screening would not prolong their lives and when the time of death comes no one can push it away( K,Salman2011)Another point is that the fear f rom possibility of identification abnormal cells would necessarily lead to other investigations oftentimes influence the willingness of the women to attend, especially when there is no one to sire the children during the screening and the lack of significant support. (chapter4)In Algeria, as in many other Arabic countries, cancer screening is usually recommended for diagnostic purposes sort of than being used as a tool for second-string prevention ( K,Salman2011) most of women consider the absence of visible symptoms as a sign of good health hence they do not seek health care unless the disease manifests itself and starts to disable her daily activities, and so the cancer is often diagnosed at its advanced stage.Perceived benefits is about the persons opinion on how much may new behaviour decrease the risk of a particular disease, the HBM predicts that most people have tendency to adopt new behaviour which is seen as a healthy behaviour when they believe the capability of this new behaviour to decrease their risk of developing a disease (Glanz and Colleagues 2008)Perceived benefits play a major role in the adoption of secondary preventive interventions such as screening, for example, if women believe that Pap smear is chief(prenominal) for early detection of the precancerous lesions and prevention of cancer that will motivate them to participate in secondary prevention practice by seeking checks up and periodic screening.Therefore women are not expected to engage in any screening program unless they perceive that this program is potentially beneficial to reduce the risk, and so health care providers should explain to the patient the ability of screening test to detect changes in cervix originally they develop to cancer, which make treatment easier and prevention effective.Perceived barriers relate to the individuals vision of the obstacles he will face if he decides to adopt a new behaviour.In order to undertake a recommended behaviour, a person needs to believe that the benefits expected from it outweigh the outcomes of his old behaviour this enables him to overcome the perceived barriers and to adopt the new behaviour (chapter4)For example, if woman believes that benefits of undergoing a screening test outweigh the obstacles that she may face, she is more likely to obtain Pap test. preceding studies have showed that women who perceived the Pap smear testing as a painful and embarrassing process were less likely to obtain cervical cancer screening, in the same studies women reported many cause that deter them to take the action, such as a negative previous experience, include pain, bleeding, or being faced with inexperienced practitioner who didnt explain the surgical process to them during taking the sample, language difficulties was another barrier due the perceive that she will be unable to communicate properly with the health care provider, and to cook a trusting relationship.Even those who appreciated the necessity of the screening, the fear of the test process was a great obstacle for them, as most of women find it uncomfortable, and perceive the metal speculum as a painful instrument. (Abdullah 2009)Shyness is another major hindrance that may deter screening process, and It is very common for women to refuse to reveal her body parts to undergo a animal(prenominal) exam or a medical procedures especially when the health provider is a man, and even the discussion about a sensitive health issue like marital relationship, sexual activity and reproductively is regarded as very private, and shouldnt be disclosed to other people , especially men, and even husband may sometimes not be involved in his wifes health issue if it is related to her reproductive organs.( K,Salman2011)Cues to action are the ensemble of events, things, people that motivate a person to change his behaviour, and this can be mass media such as television, radio, advice from a family or friends, leaflets, information brochure, campai gns, recommendation from health provider,(chapter4)Women are more likely to take up a pap test if she receives enough information about the benefits of the test from her GP or Gynaecologist, if she receives advice from another woman who had the test, if she is encouraged by a member of her family especially the husband or if she knows someone in her entourage with a history of cancer, all those factors are susceptible to reduce the perceived barriers to cancer screening.Perceived self-efficacy it refers to the belief of the person in his own ability to adopt the behaviour required, because people generally dont engage in doing something unless they believe they are able to achieve it. (Chapter 4)Modifying factors in addition to what it has been already said, There are other factors that seem to influence the willingness of women to take up the test such as inadequate knowledge about the screening, lack of trusting relationship with the health provide , lack of confidence in the impo rtance of the test, high cost of the test, fear of the result of the test and superstition that talking about cancer would bring it, some stigmata imposed by the community and even sometimes the family that cervical cancer is related to promiscuity, Perception of the Pap smear as a threat for the womans virginity, some fatalistic attitude that illness, recovery and death are relating to gods will and that screening test is futile, Low socioeconomic status, lack of social support, poverty, lack of health insurance (J.Hatcher and colleagues 2011), childhood sexual abuse, obesity, low levels of education, child care, lack of transportation.Cervical cancer screening- promotion interventions based on HBMToday, the HBM is used by many researchers to guideline the development of strategies for effective health intervention, In this section, I will try to summarise some determination from the different interventions based HBM that push me to suggest this model to improve womens behaviour i n Algeria.The health belief model has been used by several study, alone or combined with other health promotion models to and to improve belief and behaviours among women regarding the screening program, an example of this study, has been conducted in Iran, in 2010, this study showed that the HBM has organize the basis for an interventional program to improve behaviour among Iranian women,(S.Tavafian2012),The study was conducted with 70 volunteers- aged between 16 and 54 years, and they had never received Pap test, the participants were divided into many small groups, and apiece group underwent a academic term of 2 hour training. For the data collection tool, a self-administered multi-choice questionnaire was developed based on the concepts of the HBM. The personal belief and health practice of all the women were assessed pre intervention and four months later, the findings reported that health education based on HBM construct was effective, and could promote the participants kno wledge and improve the different components of the model (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers).The training program that has been used enhanced the willingness of women to practice the screening test significantly. The study concluded to the fact that education program based on HBM constructs can change womens health beliefs, enhance their knowledge about the cervical cancer and the screening test, and motivate them to adopt a new behaviours. (S.Tavafian2012)Another study in Somali was about an educational programme about the purpose of the screening test, to encourage Somalis to undertake the test. The participants praised the initiative and suggested that such information should be provided in a community setting, because it would help women to perceive the value of the test, and to overcome the different fatalistic barriers to screening. further, Participants suggested improving the awareness of screening among women via mass media TV, radio, video, DVDs, C Ds and audiotapes (Abdullahi , 2009),Health promotion (ACCP 2004)( review the title)There is a lack of information regarding health promotion models that have been used to influence health behaviour among women in Algeria, and even there is no description how the intervention methods were selected,Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP) consists of five international health organizations who share all the same goal to prevent cervical cancer in limited-resource countries.it aims through its projects to implement an effective prevention strategies to minimise the burden of the cervical cancer .unfortunately ,Algeria has not been included in this initiative, through my review of this manual , I would suggest it as an approach to improve womens health is Algeria and to promote health service delivery.Many method of diagnostic, screening and treatment are currently used. And each of them has strengths and limitations, this method should be reviewed to pick up the most appropriate for the patient,for the screening for example the Pap smear test is the most commonly used, this test requires multiple and regular visit from the client, which can be a barrier for the woman to attend it,The ACCP suggest some alternative approach with bust sensitivity and specificity such as Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing, or opthalmic screening, a low cost method with an immediate result.As a health care facility, they suggest to combine the treatment of precancerous lesions to the screening process, and propose some effective and safe methods that should be performed by physician and not physician. These treatment methods allow cure and histological verification at the same time, it has been shown that this initiative was praised by women and providers as well, and it has a great result to lower rate morbidity.The combination of both effective screening approach and treatment would overcome the limitation.Facility womens access to precancer treatment services, through selecting a program to link screening services to precancer treatment services. This would increase the lastingness and encourage woman to follow up.Achieving widespread screening coverage of the target population by selection of well-organised prevention approach. And this may include the policymakers and governance who should encourage the investment in cervical cancer prevention cooking an effective prevention intervention Planning a prevention program requires a coordination between a multidisciplinary management team, that include clinical, administrative, and training specialists.To achieve the programs objective, the team members should follow a participatory process which includes also the perspective of lay people who are concerned by the outcome of this program, and this will allow achieving a high screening coverage with satisfactory result. modify health services and laboratory infrastructures delivery services should be accessible, acceptable, affordable, and reliable to satisfy the client and ensure a high coverage of the population targetTraining Ensuring Performance to Standard Ensure to qualify a competent staff and health provider, to attract client to use the facilities available and this would blow over by training session that enable provider to confidently offer reliable servicesProviding Information and Counselling to Address conjunction and Client NeedsWomen target group should be informed enough the benefits of screening and availability of prevention services to increase the military strength of the program, and this could happen by direct dawn between woman and health thespian or through mass media and campaign, Social network interventions, mailed invitation letter for screening and reminders, information brochure which are very popular to spread information about health topics. It has been stated that direct provider contact is more effective to increase the use of prevention services as the individual counselling will addre ss concerns and emotional need and should be more convincingOverview of screening, treatment and Palliative Care services of cervical cancer Cervical cancer screening services, cervical cancer treatment, and alleviatory care services should be continuously linked to ensure the effectiveness of the program