Saturday, April 13, 2019
Violence in Sports - an Ethical Perspective Essay Example for Free
Violence in Sports an estimable Perspective EssayViolence in summercater has become far similarly commonplace. Aggressive gasconades such as footb each and hoc nominate involve many aggressive tactics moreover far too much do these aggressive tactics become overshadowed by deliberate acts of forcefulness with the intent to fix bodily harm to an opponent. Many original and non-profession athletes, as well as coaches, afford adapted the brain that winning is the common goal that all who participate in fun strive for and hence life that engaging in violent acts mend competing should be permitted in achieving this goal. In sport winning is what severally athlete strives for and seemingly they will consign in harmful acts of forcefulness to achieve their goal. Former capital of Massachu solidifyingts Bruins player David Forbes was quoted I just dont see, no matter how wrong the act is, how anything that happens in an athletic contest be vicious, (Gillespie). The mentality of being above the law that around captain athletes possess does not moreover affect the game in which they argon playing. Many athletes who execute corporal acts of violence while competing ar more prone to bankting such violent acts in their every sidereal day lives, most commonly domestic violence. Harvard Law Review).Spectator violence and hooliganism are also primarily conjugate to the violence fans observe during sporting events. (Williams). Also, victor and amateur sport has become an integral part of our g prejudiceiness and gild. Sports sess be seen or heard, in one form or another, at any clock of day or night. Professional athletes are amongst the most publicized people in the world. Thus, the words and actions of these athletes digest been commonly mistaken as notions of acceptable conduct.Therefore, people, especially children, who view these acts of excessive and dangerous violence often imitate the aggressive acts they too frequently observe fr om professional and amateur athletes. The core of these on passing play problems is the lack of, or far too feeble disciplinary actions assigned to players who commit unlawful acts of violence while competing in sport. League officials essential enforce harsh penalties for acts of violence during a sporting event. In more severe cases violence in sport should be transacted as a criminal matter, where perpetrators can be tried and convicted in civil court.This paper will discuss the affects that violence in sport has on our parliamentary procedure by discussing the sub branches of the Social Conflict scheme of sociology. In taking into custody the sociological affects of violence in sport it is possible to discuss how violence in sports affects our present day fraternity, which closely dos Socrates pattern in achieving an ideal state. In applying Socrates pattern in achieving an ideal state on with the psychological aspects of Platos cardinal virtues it will be possible to c ome to an on a lower floorstanding on how to rule reveal violence in sport.In conclusion, the paper will discuss why athletes, conscious of their actions or not, commit violent acts while competing by applying Psychologist Immanuel Kants Theory of Command Given by Reason. Unpunished acts of violence that occur while competing that goes without punishment eventually leads to violence acts while not competing. There demand been numerous accounts of athletes performing physical assault while not competing. The most prevalent form of violence carried out by athletes off the playing field is domestic violence.Football coach Joe Paterno of Penn State University was quoted Im going to go home.. nd beat up my wife after a pre-season loss (Harvard Law Review HLR, 1996 p. 1048). Many people construct speculated about why athletes are like plausibly to commit acts of domestic abuse. One of these speculations is that players such as enforcers train to use violence and intimidation on the field and whitethorn have difficulty preventing these lessons from carrying over into their personal relationships, (HLR, 1996 p. 1050).Another, more logical speculation is that sport has had a kind of sanctuary atmosphere to it in terms of the legal system and police have kept their distance, (Lapchick, 2000 p. ). For an athlete to be above the law simply because he or she is an athlete is irrational. However, the public has gotten fed up with athletes crossing the violent lines, both on and off the court, and that may apply to police entering the sanctuary, (Lapchick, 2000 p. 1). If indeed the police begin to get involved when acts of violence are performed by athletes on and off the court, violence and physical aggression may not be as commonplace in the future as they are today.Irrational as it may be for sport to have its own sanctuary atmosphere in terms of the legal system, we as a guild essential question why we lastly allow for this to occur. During the 2003- 2004 Natio nal Hockey League season Todd Bertuzzi of the Vancouver Canucks brutally attacked unsuspecting Colorado Avalanche forward Steve Moore. The attack left Moore with a broken neck which ultimately ended his NHL life. Although Bertuzzi was suspended for the remainder of the season and his team was fined $250,000 no criminal charges were laid.One can only wonder how an unprovoked attack on an unsuspecting victim which ultimately ended a career due to a broken neck cannot be treated as a criminal offense. The Bertuzzi nonessential is an ideal example which illustrates how our society allows professional athletes to advocate themselves above the law. The problem of violence in sport can be discussed using the sub branches of the Social Conflict Theory of sociology. The Social Conflict Theory of sociology deals with the ideology that the problems that society faces are the result of the way that society, as well as the economics of that society are organized.The sub branch of Social Confl ict Theory that gives support to the explanation to why we as a society put professional athletes above the law is The Marxist Theory. The Marxist Theory can also be broken down even further into Instrumental Marxism and Structural Marxism theories. The general set forth behind the two Marxist theories however are quite similar. Marxist sociologists view crime as an outcome of Capitalism. The upper sept, or the Bourgeoises, control all modes of production. It is this system that creates the division between the classes.The upper classes have all they need they are the wealthy class as well as the most tidy and influential. The lower class, or the Proletariat, on the other hand has virtually zilch. These are the people left with no power no influence and virtually nothing. The general concepts of the Marxist theory are that the laws are set up to protect the interests as well as maintain their financial standing while nothing is given to the lower classes or the poor. In our soci ety we view our professional athletes as the upper class or the Bourgeoises.Professional athletes are indeed wealthy, powerful and influential. Thus our current laws, according to the Marxist theories, are set up in a way to protect the interest of the upper class (including professional athletes) as well as not to ruin their social status. The Marxist Theories provide an explanation of how professional athletes, such as Todd Bertuzzi, can carry out intentional acts of violence and not be prosecuted while if others who are not part of the upper class (the Proletariat) were to carry out the same act of violence would be prosecuted in a civil court.Therefore, to eliminate violence in sport our society must not allow subcultures, ice hockey for an example, to follow a different set of laws than the rest of society. Today our society is divided into many different classes. There is the upper class, the upper-middle class, middle class and so forth. Our present day society closely follow s Socrates pattern in achieving an ideal state. Socrates pattern divides society into collar classes. The first of the three are the workers, craftsmen, farmers, shopkeepers ect. Another class is the auxiliaries or warriors, and the third class is the guardians or rulers.Each man in the state go bads in one or another of these classes. However to simply divide a society into three classes in an attempt to achieve an ideal state seems slightlywhat implausible. Plato believed that every man must possess the cardinal virtues to live a unplayful live. These virtues cognition, temperance, justice and bravery are essential in living a good life and therefore are essential in achieving an ideal state. These virtues however can be applied not only to everyday life, but also to subcultures, such as hockey or football. Plato believes for a state to be ideal it must possess wisdom.The concept of wisdom is understanding ones self and controlling self. If professional or amateur athletes w ere to possess the virtue of wisdom they ultimately possess self control. To say an athlete committed an act of violence unintentionally or because he or she was caught up in the game is absurd. To commit an act of violence with the intent to cause disgrace is premeditated. If all athletes were to possess the virtue of wisdom they would have complete control over one self. wholly athletes should also possess the virtue of courage.Courage can be defined by Plato as preserving things which may payly be feared (Plato 31). In professional and amateur sport athletes need to respect and obey the rules and regulations. In other words athletes must fear the possible punishments, whether criminal or not, for violence to ultimately be terminated from sport. If athletes begin to feel that they are not above the law or that their subculture must follow the same laws as the remainder of society violence in sport will ultimately decrease.In the republic Plato describes temperance, the third vi rtue, as within man himself, in his soul, there is a etter part and a worse and that he is his own scale when the part which is better by nature has the worse under control (Plato 32). Clearly the virtue of temperance is important to possess for violence to diminish in sport. To master oneself and have the worse under control would definitely decrease the amount of violence in sport. Also, for athletes to have temperance would make for a more exciting game. To have control over ones self in a team game means putting the team before the individual. Doing so will lead to less violent acts and a more exciting team oriented room of play.The final and most important virtue is justice. Plato believes that if a community were to follow and obey the three former virtues of wisdom, courage and temperance justice will automatically exist. This can also be applied to the subculture of sport. If all people within the subculture of sport such as the General Managers, league officials and ath letes were to possess the three virtues of wisdom, courage and temperance justice would automatically exist and therefore violence in sport would be a criminal matter where perpetrators can be tried and convicted in civil court.In society there are two types of command given by reason hypothetical and bland despotics. Immanuel Kant describes hypothetical imperatives as an action that must be done to justify a means or reach a set goal, (Kant 2). Categorical imperatives are actions that are done because of their necessity to morality, (Kant 2). Hypothetical and categorical imperatives are also present in subcultures. Athletes who commit violent acts while competing follow the hypothetical imperative command.They are driven by hopes of winning and will do whatever it takes to achieve this goal. This is a key factor in giving an explanation to why some athletes find reasoning in committing a violent act while competing in a sporting event. Also this gives explanation to why some athl etes fell that no matter how wrong the act is, how anything that happens in an athletic contest be criminal. quest the hypothetical imperative is described as performing an action to justify a means or reach a set goal.If this action is violent many athletes will argue that it should not be considered criminal because it was a justified action executed to reach a set goal a goal which they are entitled and expected to carry out. However, Kant would argue against this stating that the only ethical principle is universal, and therefore categorical, is to treat oneself, al ways as an end, never as a mean. For example in hockey a hypothetical imperative could be if you dont obey the rules you go to the penalty shock. A categorical imperative would be Obey the rules, it is your duty.If athletes were to take on a categorical imperative way of life sport violence would come to an end, not because it is right or wrong, but because it would be the athletes duty to treat oneself, always as an end, never as a mean. Nonetheless, it is illogical to assume that violence in sport will one day be non existent. It is not illogical to assume that if the subculture of sport and those who are in command adapt the categorical imperative ways that violent acts in sport will be considered a criminal matter.To live a good life it is essential to possess the cardinal virtues. The cardinal virtues are essential in achieving an ideal state. In achieving an ideal state Kant would argue that the only ethical principle is universal and therefore categorical is to treat oneself, always as an end, never as a means. By treating oneself always as an end, never as a means true justice in present day society will hulk and everyone who commits a violent act will be prosecuted in civil court regardless if they belong to a subculture or not.