Friday, May 31, 2019
Formalistic Approach Ode to the shoemakers last of a Favorite Cat (Favourite)     In Thomas Grays poem Ode on the Death of a Favorite Cat, we find many examples of the Formalistic Approach. In this poem, we find numerous examples of alliteration, rhyme scheme, puns, and creative word choice.  This poem is very joyful and delight to read because the author is very creative in his choice of words and phrases.     In the first stanza, we figure out where this event is taking place or in other words, we find out the setting.  The cat is standing on a ledge in his owners house looking down into a fish bowl and gazing at gold fish. In this stanza, we find patterns of rhyming. Within this stanza this rhyming pattern is A, A, B ,C,C,B.  In the first stanza they would be the first two lines (side and dyd), the deuce-ace and sixth line (blow and below), and fourth and fifth (kind and reclind). Line six of this stanza states Gazed on the lake bel ow (Gray line 6) represents word choice. Gray could have just stated that the cat...
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Impact of Outside Invasion in the substitution Andes and Himalayas In Toward a Cultural Ecology of Mountains The Central Andes and Himalayas Compared, David Guillet writes to address the nature of cultural adaptations between two mountain populations. His research is spurred by increased recognition that human intervention can cause hurtful resource degeneration in these fragile mountain environments. Guillet attempts to answer two questions What environmental constraints on material provisioning will a human population forgather in mountains? How does the range of possible responses lead to patterns of social relations? By asking these questions Guillet believes that the production surgical process is the critical link between the culture and the environment. product is important to the cultural ecology of cragged regions because 1.) production decisions are constrained by altitude 2.) cultural strategies implemented as a result of the mountainous environment are relate d to production 3.) comparing production allows for a comparative model of mountain adaptations and 4.) it shows that individuals and groups are involved in a process of adaptive flexibility that allows human response to the environment (Guillet, 563). In mountain environments, human populations are limited by vertical constraints on production strategies. The interaction between altitude, climate, and soil fertility sets limits on what types of crop can survive. This is evident in the use of animals to plow fields. The yaks of the Himalayas were able to adapt well to the plow, unlike the Andean camelids that lacked the physical strength for plowing. The mountain environment impacts many aspects of life. These regions have a poor... ...ent from degradation. After reading both Himalayan Herders and Toward a Cultural Ecology of Mountains, I have noticed a difference in the impact of outside invasion. For Bishop, the relatively isolated Melemchi village is rapidly changin g, in response to global patterns, as a result of outside mildews. However, these herders are able to maintain their cultural knowledge and traditions that have shaped their village for centuries. Why is it that Bishop noticed the dramatic influence of outside forces, while Guillet hardly recognizes this as a factor leading to adaptations in mountain populations? Is it because Guillets model needed to be broad that he was unable to focus on this influence? Works Cited Guillet, David, 1983. Toward a Cultural Ecology of Mountains The Central Andes and the Himalayas Compared, in Current Anthropology, 24(5) 561-574.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
The gross of Lot 49 Her Errand Into the Wilderness        One of the central themes moved(p) upon in Pierre-Yves Petillons Essay, A Re-cognition of Her Errand Into the Wilderness, is the general sense of alter angiotensin converting enzyme feels when he reads Thos Pynchons The Crying of Lot 49. Petillon begins his essay by expressing the opinion that it is rather odd that The Crying of Lot 49, a slim novella should have become an overnight classic (ODonnell, p.127). What at first seemed like a typical piece elaborate the virtues of LSD, turned out to have much more under the surface than a first reading would reveal. Here was another groovy sample of the emergent psychedelic scene om, sweet om, O(edipa) M(ass) and her Lonely Hearts Club Band (ODonnell, p. 128). Petillon touches upon the books power beautifully by realizing that its mood grows upon you with each reading (ODonnell, p. 129).   Born in the Late 1930s, doubting Thomas Pynchon came o f age during the Eisenhower Siesta, when everything had, it seemed, slowed to a sudden standstill (ODonnell, p. 135). Petillon then relates Lot 49 to Jack Kerouacs On The Road, by telling of their simultaneous sense of blooming, as if awakening from a long sleep (ODonnell, p. 130). He also points out that both Kerouacs and Pynchons main characters (Kerouacs being himself, and Pynchons being Oedipa Maas), both move further and further into an invisible, secret America (ODonnell, p. 130).   I believe the one thing Petillon has failed to mention adequately, though, is the fact that the reader never gets a sense of their surroundings. When awakening from a long sleep, one usually ends up with a general awareness and clarity as to what is going on around him. However, with The Crying of Lot 49, you come to end of the story, or the end of the awakening if you will, only to find that you have slipped further into a dream.
Alan Patons Cry the Beloved Country The phonograph recording I have chosen to write about is Cry the Beloved Country. This book is about ambiguity and reconciliation. The main character in the story Stephan Kumalo has to deal his the struggle of his family, and trying to keep them together. The first few chapters of this book are base in a small town called Ndotshenti. But the action in this takes place in the largest city on South Africa, Johannesburg. Stephan Kumalo finds out there sewer be day light even when nothing in you life is going right.The area of Ndoshenti is known as the Velds, which in Zulu means the green grassland. The country-bred country is what describes Ndotshenti best on the other side of the town lies the European part of Ndotshenti. This is Ndoshenti where blacks are not allowed to go. Primarily because apartheid, which means total separation surrounded by blacks and whites. Stephan Kumalo is the minister in the small town. Stephan Kuma lo helps those in need of help. Also find out very early, he is in need of help too. His son Absalom decides to run home, because he does not like his fathers new wife. He goes with his friends Johannesburg to work the gold mines.However his son is not the only person causation stress on Stephan Kumalo, because with in a few days of his son leaving, he receives a garner pertaining to his sister. She very sick, but the man writing the letter says not physically, but mentally. At this point Kumalo is befu...
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Saving mysterious RyanIn his review of the film Saving Private Ryan, N.Cull claims that the film presents a realistic depiction of the lives and deaths of G.Is in the European field of force in World War II. Do you agree with his sagacity of the film? Argue your case. N.Culls assessment of the film Saving Private Ryan in that it portrays a realistic depiction of the lives and deaths of G.Is in the European theatre in World War II is an accurate one. Director Stephen Spielberg brings to the audience the sheer madness of war and the search for decency within it. That search ends for a multitude of soldiers whose mission it is too save Private Ryan. Although the film shows horrific and realistic battle scenes along with diachronicly correct settings and situations with weapons and injuries true to their time, the films personation of war goes a lot deeper than that. The expressions and feelings of soldiers along with their morals and ideology be depicted unifyingly with the horro r of war. The lives and deaths of American soldiers in the immediate part of the invasion of Normandy are illustrated more realistically than ever before. Saving Private Ryan captures the harsh reality of war as authentically as possible. The films historical accuracy of the Omaha rim landing begins with the angry sea and the timing of the attack, taking place at dawn. The film starts with Ryan in old age remembering his fallen comrades and then the write up goes back in time to the events from there. A group of armed soldiers aboard a transport vessel look almost discarnate as the boat is tossed nigh the ocean. The soldiers do not pay attention to the orders they are given. (Perhaps a cause of why there is so much confusion and disorganisa... ...Ryan may not be a complete representation of the invasion of Normandy because of its need to provide a storyline and make a profit at the cinemas. Yet its accurate historical detailing enables N. Culls assessment of the film to be a rea listic depiction of the lives and deaths of G.Is in the European theatre in World War II Bibliography Primary Sources D. Breger. Private Breger in Britain. London, 1944 J. Robert Slaughter. D-Day, 1944. Source analysis. Sir W. Churchill. Words at War. June 15, 1940 Secondary Sources American Historical Review. Vol 103 no 4. October 1998 R. Wolfson. Years of Change 1891-1995. Hudder and Slaughton. London, 1993. S. Spielberg. Saving Private Ryan The Men. The Mission. The Movie. http//www80.homepage.villanova.edu/james.dion/over.html 18/09/2001 T. Edwards. D-Day. Wayland Publishers. London, 1975.
Saving Private RyanIn his review of the characterisation Saving Private Ryan, N.Cull claims that the look at presents a realistic depiction of the lives and deaths of G.Is in the European theatre in World War II. Do you agree with his assessment of the film? Argue your case. N.Culls assessment of the film Saving Private Ryan in that it portrays a realistic depiction of the lives and deaths of G.Is in the European theatre in World War II is an accurate one. Director Stephen Spielberg brings to the audience the sheer madness of struggle and the search for decency within it. That search ends for a group of soldiers whose deputation it is too save Private Ryan. Although the film shows horrific and realistic battle scenes along with historically correct settings and situations with weapons and injuries true to their time, the films portrayal of war goes a lot deeper than that. The expressions and feelings of soldiers along with their morals and ideology are depicted unifyingly with th e horror of war. The lives and deaths of American soldiers in the immediate part of the invasion of Normandy are illustrated more realistically than ever before. Saving Private Ryan captures the harsh reality of war as authentically as possible. The films historical accuracy of the Omaha beach set down begins with the angry sea and the timing of the attack, taking place at dawn. The film starts with Ryan in old age remembering his fallen comrades and then the story goes jeopardize in time to the events from there. A group of armed soldiers aboard a transport vessel look almost discarnate as the boat is tossed around the ocean. The soldiers do not pay attention to the orders they are given. (Perhaps a cause of why there is so much confusion and disorganisa... ...Ryan may not be a complete representation of the invasion of Normandy because of its need to provide a storyline and make a profit at the cinemas. Yet its accurate historical detailing enables N. Culls assessment of the film to be a realistic depiction of the lives and deaths of G.Is in the European theatre in World War II Bibliography special Sources D. Breger. Private Breger in Britain. London, 1944 J. Robert Slaughter. D-Day, 1944. Source analysis. Sir W. Churchill. Words at War. June 15, 1940 Secondary Sources American Historical Review. Vol 103 no 4. October 1998 R. Wolfson. Years of Change 1891-1995. Hudder and Slaughton. London, 1993. S. Spielberg. Saving Private Ryan The Men. The Mission. The Movie. http//www80.homepage.villanova.edu/james.dion/over.html 18/09/2001 T. Edwards. D-Day. Wayland Publishers. London, 1975.
Monday, May 27, 2019
Hello and a actually good evening to our beloved principal sir/madam, teachers and my dear friends. Today I stand here to frolic a formal goodbye to all of you. When I joined this enlighten many days back (you may mention the correct number of years in here for your speech), I was filled with lots of doubts and of course was scared a bit. But slowly with time we all got glued so potently that even fevicol started feeling jealous.I still remember our small mischief in the class room, teasing each other, laughing out loud on a silly joke, reading a novel in maths class, eating others lunch boxes before break, fighting on petty issues, competitions on stages, crying over each others shoulders, and lot more which is hidden in deep in my heart and of everyones around here. These memories are just too valuable. These walls of our classroom have cognize so many striking moments of our friendship and fight these walls are like our second home.I used to hate holidays of more than 3 da ys as it invariably meant being away from my friends which was too unbearable and now we stand on the turning point of our life when we have to move on our different paths. perfection only knows if ever we would be able to meet each other later in our life or not. I am also delicious to Facebook, twitter, email and Google plus for uniting us in our friendship chain even when we leave this school. I have made countless memories that I allow for treasure forever.I take this farewell speech as an opportunity to thank my teachers who provided direction to our knowledge and shape to our future. I know, were one of the naughtiest classes in the whole school but we love you all and would never forget the lessons of books as well as of life that you have taught us. Thank you everyone for making this moment a very special for all of us. I will always cherish this moment. All the very best for your future. I hope that all of you will get great success in your future. Thank you.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
If manufacturing overhead rates were allocated based on direct aim hours, the sum manufacturing overhead bell for individually product forget seven hundred fifty gram dollars ($750,000) and deuce hundred fifty thousand dollars ($250,000) for the mono-relay and bi-relay, respectively. This is computed by multiplying the one million dollars ($1,000,000) total manufacturing overhead with the total direct labor cost for each product over the total direct labor cost for both products.The manufacturing overhead cost per unit of product is eighteen dollars and seventy-five cents ($18. 75) and twenty-five dollars ($25) for the mono-relay and the bi-relay, respectively. This is arrived at by dividing the manufacturing overhead cost allocated to each product with the tote up of units produced. The total product cost is sixty-two dollars and seventy-two cents ($62. 75) and eighty-five dollars ($85) for the mono-relay and bi-relay, respectively.If the manufacturing overhead rate was alloc ated based on Activity Based Costing, the manufacturing overhead rate will be allocated to each activity pools as follows maintaining parts sixty thousand dollars ($60,000) and one hundred twenty thousand dollars ($120,000) for the mono-relay and bi-relay, respectively processing seventy-two thousand dollars ($72,000) and eighteen thousand dollars ($18,000) for the mono-relay and bi-relay, respectively quality control one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) and one hundred thirty thousand dollars ($130,000) for the mono-relay and bi-relay, respectively and machine-related overhead two hundred thousand dollars ($200,000) and three hundred thousand dollars ($300,000) for the mono-relay and bi-relay, respectively. This is computed by multiplying the pre-determined overhead cost for each activity with ratio as given in the problem.The total manufacturing cost for each product is four hundred thirty-two thousand dollars ($432,000) and five hundred sixty-eight dollars ($568,000) for t he mono-relay and bi-relay, respectively. The figure is arrived at by adding the manufacturing overhead allocated to the each activity pool for each of the product, as computed above. The unit product cost per unit of product, using Activity Based Costing, is ten dollar and eighty cents ($10. 8) and cardinal dollars and eighty cents. The bi-relay is not more profitable than the mono-relay. Since the company is producing seventy-five percent less bi-relay than mono-relay, the cost of maintaining parts inventory, quality-control and machine-related cost is much higher per unit of bi-relay than mono-relay.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
1.0 INTRODUCTIONPollution has understandingd many kinds of effects to the environment that the different forms of pollutions be harder to be controlled and sadly, they keep become more serious throughout the years. Apparently, other than natural disaster it is evident that the major cause of pollution is the irresponsible act of human being. world(a) warming has become a warm topic nowadays and we must take up the responsibility to resolve this problem. world-wide warming can be defined as the unusu every last(predicate)y rapid increment in Earths average surface temperature over the past century primarily receivable to the ballparkhouse gases released by people burning fogy fuels. ( Random House Dictionary, Random House, Inc. 2011. )The image of the factory exhausting the gases that creates chiliadhouse effect. Fig 1 Referring to the in a higher place picture, it is clearly proven that the gases from factory has polluted the advertize , creating an increased in greenhou se effect- heat-trapping, primarily carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. This has also destroyed the atmosphere since approximately of the gases trap in the air. This is single of the effects of global warming as the temperature rise the warmth would cause the atmosphere to become thinner and thinner. As a conclusion, we have to solve this problem before we lose everything as a consequence of what we have d sensation to Mother nature.1.1 DEFINITIONGlobal warming is when the populace heats up (the temperature rises). It happens when greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, irrigate vapor, nitrous oxide, and methane) trap heat and light from the sun in the earths atmosphere, which increases the temperature. This hurts many people, animals, and plants. Many cannot take the change, so they die.2.0 THE CAUSES & EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING2.1 CAUSES 1 The Greenhouse EffectOne of the main causes of Global Warming is the Green house effect. When the emission of infra-red radiation in the atmosphere warms a artificial satellites surface, it is known as the Green House Effect. The Greenhouse effect is a natural phenomena occurring on planet Earth. at that place are natural as well as human-made causes of the greenhouse effect. Industries are also one of the major cause of the Greenhouse Effect because of burning of fossil fuels, oil, coal, and gas and releases those gases into the air. The natural causes of the Green house effect are the emissions of gases like nitrous oxide, carbon-dioxide, methane, ozone and water vapour. The greenhouse effect is actually beneficial to the Earth.It is only when human-made processes increase its speed that the problems occur. One main problem is the oft repeated Global Warming. Population growth also is a indirect contributor and one of the causes of the Greenhouse effect. the increase in population, the needs and wants of the people increase. Therefore, this increases the manufacturing processes as well as the industry processes. This results in the increase of the release of industrial gases which catalyst the green house effect. The increase in population also results in the increase of agricultural processes. Most man-made machines, like the automobile also contribute to the green house effect. (DSilva R.)Fig 3 The Greenhouse Effect. A heat-trapping blanket of greenhouse gases primarily carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere can cause potentially significant changes in the timing and length of the seasons, temperature, and the marrow and frequency of precipitation. ( Washington State Department of Ecology)Fig 2 From which sectors do the major greenhouse gas emissions come from? The lower part of the picture shows the sources individually for the gases carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, respectively.EFFECT The Greenhouse EffectDrought is one of the effect that causes by the Greenhouse Effect, and it is driving current increases in food prices around the world, which means one day the price of grains might be higher than fuel. The number of give people decreased up until the late 1990s, and that number is still increasing.In addition, according to a 2005 world health organization report, there is 150,000 annual deaths that tied to the clime change. Climate related deaths are expected to double in 25 years. Industrialized countrties maybe sheltered from the current impacts of the climate change, but not others. awake waves are also on of the effect that causes by the Greenhouse Effect.Solution Reduce carbon dioxide emissionFirst of all, Replacing a regular candent light bulb with a compact fluorescent light bulb (CFL) CFLs use 60% less energy than a regular bulb. This simple flip-flop go out save about 300 pounds of carbon dioxide a year.Fig 3 fluorescent light bulbMoreover,Cleaning or replacing filters on your furnace and air conditioner Cleaning a dirty air filter can save 350 pounds of carbon dioxide a year.Fig 4 cleaning air conditionerThe third solvent is to Move your fridge and freezerPlacing them next to the cooker or boiler consumes much more energy than if they were standing on their own. For example, if you put them in a hot cellar room where the room temperature is 30-35C, energy use is al nigh double and causes an extra 160kg of CO2 emissions for fridges per year and 320kg for freezers.2.2 GLOBAL DIMMINGGlobal dimming can also be one of the causes of global warming. It is caused by an southward aerosol in the atmosphere. Aerosols are created naturally and as an effect of human activities such as combustion engines of vehicles, peculiarly for diesel engines. Dust is a kind of aerosol, whereas large volcanic eruption releases aerosols too in the forms of clouds and ash. This can spread around the globe for months and blocks the sunlight in and reflect back to the space. Thus, global warming occurs. However, it may be giving us a false sense of security by partially book binding the severity of the greenhouse gas induced problem, leading us to take action less quickly than we should do mitigate that problem. ( Russel, R. 2007) Global dimming also increases the run a risk of forest burning for drying tropical forests. This Will release more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.Fig 5 Sunlight is blocked by too many of sulphur aerosol.EFFECTGlobal dimming leave behind rise the temperature over the next 100 years by 10 degree centigrade. Black soot aerosols reduce the amount of sunlight reflecting back into space, causing more sunlight to be absorbed and thus, global warming occurs.SOLUTIONIn order to prevent the rise in global dimming, the vanquish solution is to reduce the burning of fossil fuels. People should reduce the usage of vehicles to cut down the amount of aerosols being released2.3 DEFORESTATIONdisforestation are also one of the causes of global warming. Trees are one of the most important aspects of the planet we live in. It is also vitally important to the environment and all o f the living things in the world. (Putatunda R.) They are important for the climate of the Earth, they act as filters of carbon dioxide, the are habitat and shelters to millions of species, and they are important for their aesthetic appeal. However, the trees on our planet are decreasing due to the developing of industry. They cut down the trees for lumber that is used for building real(a)s, furniture, paper products, and living stuff that human need.There is so many trees has been depleted because of the short term of economic benefits. According to some estimates, there is more than 50 percent of trees has disappeared due to the human activity. One of the most worrying factors today is the massive destruction of the rainforests of the world, which is affecting the biodiversity adversely, as well as being one of the major contributory factors of the Holocene mass extinction that is ongoing. Forests are also cleared in order to accomodate expanding urban areas. And all this will ri se the temperature of earth up because of too much of carbon dioxide.Fig 6 The temperature of earth has risen in the last hundred years.EFFECT Trees contributes in a large way in maintaining the water cycle. They draw up water by their roots, which is then released into the atmosphere. A large part of the water that circulate in the ecosystem of rainforests, for instance, it remains inside the plants, When these tress are cut down, that area will be dry because of disruption of the water cycle. On the other hand, without the support of the roots of trees, the land with too much of damp will causes landslide.SOLUTION re-afforestation should be planned by the government. Under this process, the government of a country should implement eco-factory where only selected areas of trees can be cut down and transported with minimal injure to the forest. Secondly, land use planning advocates environmentally friendly development techniques, such as reduction of urban and suburban sprawl. Com munity forestrywhere concerned citizens come together to manage and participate in keeping their local forests viable and sustainable ( ways to reduce deforestation and repair the damage 2008) Thirdly, green business should be carried out. Each and every developing and advanced countries should focus on recycled paper and wood products. The countries stated should be responsible for environmental consumerism.3.0 discipline STUDY content STUDY 1 PROBLEM IN NIGERIAGlobal warming is caused mostly by the emission of greenhouse gases, and largely are from industry production, agriculture, transportation and material consumption. The effect on Nigeria and other parts of the african continent has been steadily raising water levels along the coastal areas, with some parts of these places now underwater while others are condemned to being submerged in due course. Moreover, There have been unusually extended droughts and serious desertification, and this problem makes Nigeria falls into th e growth of poverty.CASE STUDY 2 PROBLEM IN CHINAChina is one of the fast developing countries in the world. At the same time, China is also one of the global warming causing country. There are many power plants and vehivles in China. The air surrounding of the power plant is in bad condition and this will harm human health. In addition, China is also one of the fifth country which is used the most coal. All of this not only will harm human health, all of these will also bring disaster to the world, not only in China.China government wanted to give the best to their people. However, they did not realize that what they are doing now is causing a lot of problems. Global warming causs climate change rapidly which destroy crops. Consequently, people in China are facing food shortage, and many trees are also have been chopped down to expanding urban areas. In conclusion, the increase of population in China leads to global warming.4.0 CONCLUSIONIn a conclusion, we must try our best to sol ve the problems and strive to reinstate balance on our earth for interestingness of our future generations.BIBLIOGRAPHY(Rincon Consultants, Inc.) Greenhouse Gas Emissions And The Greenhouse Effect http//www.lake-elsinorecap.org/resources.html (Petrone M.) How to Stop Global Warminghttp//globalwarming-facts.info/50-tips.html(Riebeek H.) Global Warming. June 3, 2010 http//earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/GlobalWarming/ (Putatunda R.) Causes and effects of deforestation.http//www.buzzle.com/articles/causes-and-effects-of-deforestation.html(Earth Talk) What is global dimming.November 15 2010http//www.politicalaffairs.net/what-is-global-dimming/(Admin) Global dimming. Nobember 25, 2006http//www.mywebschool.org/postnuke/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=144(Korieocha Godwin P.) A case study of global warming in Nigeria. December 21, 2010 http//www.internationalpeaceandconflict.org/group/nohasarkngopeacecooperationdevelopment/forum/topics/a-case-study-of-global-warming
Friday, May 24, 2019
Hester Prynne signifies a women of grace and wild spirit. Strong-willed and beautiful, Hester Prynne has also defied the Puritans ways. Though she is ladylike and prideful, she is faced with the trouble of being a blunder outner. The innocence of both human can be taken away in a flash, and in the case of Hester Prynne, her innocence escapes her after she commits a horrific sin. Hester is immediately quarantined in her town because she commits an act of adultery, resulting in a vermilion Letter forever engraved on her bosom, serving as a constant monitor lizard of the mistakes in her other(prenominal).In many ways throughout The Scarlet Letter, Hester over knows her sin and redeems herself to her town, revealing her inner power and strength. Even though Hesters situation leaves forces her to be an pariah in the town, she still confines strength and discards the label of being an Adulteress by showing stability. Hester Prynne is the main symbol of isolation and alienation throug hout The Scarlet Letter.Nathaniel Hawthorne emphasizes her isolation by writing that she is Alone in the world, cast off by it, and with this sole treasure to keep her heart alive, she felt that she possessed the indefeasible rights against the world (Hawthorne 100) because of her sin. As a symbol of evil and darkness, Hester is viewed by her strict Puritan town as an outsider. After Hesters crime of adultery was cognize to all, Hesters reputation and appearance of what passel viewed her as is completely changed and her goodness started going unnoticed.The towns harsh thoughts of her sin are revealed through a local woman as she testifies that At the very least, they should have put the brand of hot iron on Hester Prynnes forehead (Hawthorne 36). Hester never escapes the feelings of being alienated in the progression of her life. Her ornament,the sanguine letter,which was her doom to wear (Hawthorne 79) was shown throughout town, sequestering her from everyone else. Hester know s that even if she was allowed to take off the letter, It is too deeply branded (Hawthorne 63) and always be imprinted in her heart.This makes Hester disconnected from her holy nightclub and forces her to become a black flower (Hawthorne 45). Though Hester is isolated, she is still able to find strength in herself. Hester Prynne is very unique and different from the other women in her town because of her richness of complexion (Hawthorne 50). A lot of her strength is revealed in the beatning of The Scarlet Letter. One of these very early examples of her strength is when Hester is put in front of the town on a scaffold.Instead of Hester shaming away from her sin when she is put in front of her town, she appeared more lady-like(Hawthorne 50) and confident in herself. Even when Hester has been publicly unkept and is forced to continue wearing The Scarlet Letter on her chest, she does not try to hide her sin. As she stood there with a certain state and arrogance (Hawthorne 50) in fr ont of the judgemental Puritans, she overcomes fear and confines her strength. Not only does she show her toughness by not concealing her sin, but she also begins to change peoples negative opinions about her.Hester shows her goodness in the community by helping the poor and making clothes. Hesters new attitudes allow the people to begin to interpret Hesters Scarlet Letter differently because of her kindness. Instead of being known as the unacceptable adulterer, they said that it meant Able so strong was Hester Prynne, with a womans strength (Hawthorne 158). This shows that Hester puts her determination above all and is able to step out of her isolation by giving back to her community. These actions enable her to decease in again as a normal citizen and redeem herself as the woman she knows she can be.All in all, it is difficult for many people to look past their own unfortunate situations and the actions for which they hold remorse. However, unlike many others, Hester is eventuall y able to just that. Hester experiences a great deal of suffering due to her past sin of adultery, but despite that she is still able to overcome that through her dignity and strong-will. Hester proves that The Scarlet Letter was not needed to be taken off in order for Hester to change. She also disregards multiple offerings to remove the devils mark from her bosom, and responds by saying that It is too deeply branded.Ye cannot take it off. With that I might hold water his agony, as well as mine (Hawthorne 63). She clearly accepted her sin and stayed strong not only herself but for Pearl and the other around her to come full circle by the end of the novel. The Scarlet Letter provides great challenges for Hester, but she does not let the struggles get to her. By staying a strong and persistent woman, Hester changes her entire life for the better and comes around to redeem herself in her small Puritan town.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
A. IntroductionThe Automotive Industry in India is one of the larger commercializes in the world and had previously been one of the fastest increment globally, but is now seeing flat or negative addition rates. Indias passenger simple machine and commercial vehicle manufacturing industriousness is the sixth largest in the world, with an yearbook production of much than 3.9 million wholes in 2011. According to re penny reports, India everywheretook Brazil and became the sixth largest passenger vehicle producer in the world, grew 16 to 18 per cent to sell around three million units in the course of 2011-12. In 2009, India emerged as Asias fourth largest exporter of passenger cars, behind Japan, South Korea, and Thailand.In 2010, India shell Thailand to go away Asias third largest exporter of passenger cars. As of 2010, India is home to 40 million passenger vehicles. More than 3.7 million automotive vehicles were produced in India in 2010 (an affix of 33.9%), making the coun try the second (after China) fastest finding automobile market in the world in that year.According to the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers, annual vehicle sales are projected to growing to 4 million by 2015, no longer 5 million as previously projected. The volume of Indias car manufacturing industry is based around three crews in the south, west and north. The southern cluster consisting of Chennai is the biggest with 35% of the tax income share. Chennai, with the India operations of Ford, Hyundai, Renault, Mitsubishi, Nissan, BMW, Hindustan Motors, Daimler, Caparo and PSA Peugeot Citron is about to begin their operations by 2014. Chennai accounts for 60% of the countrys automotive exports. The western hub near Mumbai and Pune contributes to 33% of the market. The Chakan corridor near Pune, Maharashtra is the western cluster with companies kindred General Motors, Volkswagen, Skoda, Mahindra and Mahindra, Tata Motors, Mercedes Benz, Land Rover, Jaguar Cars, Fiat and F orce Motors having fictionalization kit and caboodles in the area.Nashik has a major base of Mahindra & Mahindra with a SUV assembly unit and an Engine assembly unit. Aurangabad with Audi, Skoda and Volkswagen too forms part of the western cluster. The northern cluster around the National Capital Region contributes 32% of the Indian market. Gurgaon and Manesar in Haryana form the northern cluster where the countrys largest car creater, Maruti Suzuki is based. Another emerging cluster is in the state of Gujarat with manufacturing facility of General Motors in Halol and further planned for Tata Nano at their plant in Sanand. Ford, Maruti Suzuki and Peugeot-Citroen plants are likewise manage to come up in Gujarat. Kolkata with Hindustan Motors, Noida with Honda and Bangalore with Toyota are approximately of the other automotive manufacturing regions around the country.B. Major PlayersThe Major commercialise PlayersC. return subdivisionationWhile there are multiple ways of seg menting this industry like based on harm and locomotive engine size but the most prevalent and the official method is based on dimension. i.e. the length of the vehicle under consideration. A1 section Mini Up to 3400mm (M800, Nano)A2 Segment Compact 3401 to 4000mm (Alto, coaster wagon r, Zen,i10,A-star,Swift,i20,palio,indica etc) A3 Segment Midsize 4001 to 4500mm (Manza, City, Sx4, Dzire, Logan, Accent, Fiesta, Verna etc) A4 Segment Executive 4501 to 4700mm (Corolla, civic, C class, Cruze, Optra, Octavia etc) A5 Segment Premium 4701 to 5000mm (Camry, E class, Accord, Sonata, Laura, Superb etc) A6 Segment Luxury Above 5000mm (Mercedes S class, 5 series etc) B1 Segment Van Omni, Versa, Magic etcB2 Segment MUV/MPV Innova, Tavera, Sumo etcSUV Segment CRV, VitaraetcWhile it is easy for SIAM to segment the vehicles as per dimensions but for consumers, it becomes a tad difficult. This is primarily because of the widely varying / stretch out out prices of the vehicles. A 2 segment, as per the above criterion, leave alone range mingled with 3 hundred thousands to 7 lakhs. And A 3 will be between 4.5 to 9 lakhs. Such wide variation in prices has distorted the image of segments in the minds of consumers. Hence, for simplicity purposes, a different segmentation has cropped up.The details are as fol get-gos- A Segment Approximately beneath 3.5 lakhs Alto, Eon, Nano, Spark, 800 B 1 Segment Hatchback largely below 6 lakhs Wagon R, Indica, Beat, Santro, A Star, Micra, Estilo B 2 Segment Hatchback majorly below 7.5 lakhs Swift, I 10, I 20, Ritz, Figo, Polo, Liva, Vista, Jazz, Punto, Brio, Fabia, Pulse, Aveo UVA C 1 Segment Sedan below 8 lakhs Dzire, Indigo, Etios, Sunny, Fiesta Classic, Verito, Accent, Ambassador, Aveo C 2 Segment Sedan below 9.5 lakhs Linea, Manza, Verna, Rapid, Vento, City, SX 4, Verna New, Optra D 1 Segment Premium Sedan below 15 lakhs Corolla, Civic, Cruze, Laura, Jetta, Fluence D 2 Segment Luxury Sedan below 25 lakhs Superb, Passat, Accord, Camry, Sonata, Teana, Kizashi B1 Segment Van Omni, Versa, Magic etcB2 Segment MUV/MPV Innova, Tavera, Sumo etcSUV Segment CRV, VitaraetcIf we analyze the 1st Quarter of 2012-13, then total vehicle sales has been around 6.32 lakh units. The hatchback segments has totaled to 56% of the entire passenger car sales in India. This comes to 355857 units. This clearly shows the democraticity of smaller cars in the Indian market. Alto continues to be the apex selling brand with 17422 in July. It is followed by Swift (11421) and Wagon R (9582) all Maruti brands. This is an indication of how well the Maruti team has understood the Indian market. i 10, I 20, Nano, Beat, Figo, Santro& Polo are some of the mellow selling models in these segments and these models continue to clock more than 3000 units monthly. Nano has been a disappointment so far with huge expectations but it is present some kind of resilience off late. As a segment, the Utility segment is showing the maximum growth. In fact, this segment has outclassed the other popular segments of A, B 1 & B 2.With 128110 units under its hood in the 1st quarter, the segment is definitely making some good progress. MarutisErtiga, Mahindras XUV 500 & Bolero has been implemental in pushing the volumes of this segment. Innova and Omni too are raking in good numbers. What has been disappointing is the performance from the Tata Motors stcapable Venture, Safari and Sumo have been showing steady decline in the numbers per se but definitely possess huge potential to challenge the other models.Among the sedans, Maruti Dzire continues to lead the pack. With 11413 numbers in July, it is way ahead of its adjoining model Verna (5300). The iconic models of City, Linea, SX4 have been showing consistent under growth and seriously calls for some introspection by their respective manufacturers. Vento & Rapid also showed some slack but condition the aggression of VW and Nissan, it wont be long before they s tart to pull in good numbers. Tatas Indigo and Manza were on a slightly negative terrain all these months but somehow the trend has been reversed in July. 6816 for these 2 models augurs well for the comp both.D. Indian Automobile Industry Barriers to access (and Exit) Barriers to entry (or, BTE) are anything that hinders the movement of firms into an industry. That is, BTE reduce or eliminate the entry of sunrise(prenominal) businesses into an industry. Some cartridge holders BTE thunder mug be almost insurmountable no new firms can wear an industry. Other times BTE can slow down the entry of new firms new firms appear but only slow. Very low BTE, however, means that new firms can enter the industry relatively rapidly. What can act as a BTE ?1. Amount of capitalThe amount of capital needful to enter the auto industry is in billions of dollars. So, very few outsiders can ever hope to enter the industry. This major financial requirement run as a significant barrier to entry for many industries. The auto manufacturing industry is considered to be highly capital and labor intensive. The major tolls for producing and selling automobiles embarrass * Labor While machines and robots are playing a greater role in manufacturing vehicles, there are still substantial labor costs in designing and engineering automobiles * Advertising Each year automakers spend billions on print and broadcast advertising, furthermore, they spent large amounts of money on market query to anticipate consumer trends and preferences 2. Limited message of split suppliersExisting parts suppliers have downsized their operations to the point that they do not have excess capacity.3. competition in that location are already significant numbers of well established enemys.4.Government regulationsThe stringent regulations regarding safety, design, emission standards and fuel efficiency whitethorn sometimes act as a deterrent.5. Patent protection lawsThis may prevent the use of certain inno vations at low cost.6. MarketingMarketing a new brand can be difficult and very expensive.7. Economies of scaleEconomies of scale give large producers a significant cost advantage over small rivals. Where a firm has giving very large and significant economies of scale exist, they can have cost competitiveness. New catechumens generally start small and therefore, have much higher unit production costs than the giant firms. These new, small entrants find it nearly impossible to survive against the large rival because they just cant be price competitive given their much larger unit production costs.8. Entry-deterring behaviorA firm can protect itself from competition by deliberately performing in a way that convinces potential competitors not to enter the industry. Some firms spend huge amounts of money on advertising to keep new rivals from commencement up business. Or, firms can act exceedingly aggressive if faced with new competition by perhaps starting a major price state of wa r every time a new competitor enters their market. Lawsuits against new rivals have been used to drive them out of business or to, at the very least, put together the cost of entering the business to very high levels.9. Knowledge and TechnologyIdeas and Knowledge that succeeds competitive advantage over others when patented prevent others from using it and thereof creates barrier to entry. For eg. TATA motors have great knowledge/ experience in the automobile industry and have renowned technological advantage because of the recent acquisition and mergers.10. Product Differentiation and Cost AdvantageThe new product has to be different and attractive to be accepted by the customers. Attractiveness can be measurable in the terms of the features, price etc. For an entrant to attain this, it requires lot of effort as compared to an established player. TATA Nano is an example where till now, no new entrant has entered as a competitor.Barriers to Exit Obstacles or impediments that pre vent a company from exiting a market. A company may decide to exit a market because it is unable to capture market share or turn a profit or for some other reason altogether. High barriers to exit aptitude force it to continue competing in the market. The factors that may form a barrier to exit include1. High investment in non-transferable fixed assetsThis is particularly common for manufacturing companies that invest heavily in capital equipment which is specific to one task. 2. High redundancy costsIf a company has a large number of employees, employees with high salaries, or bowdlerises with employees which stipulate high redundancy payments (layoff costs), then the firm may face significant cost if it wishes to leave the market. 3. Other closure costs. Contract contingencies with suppliers or buyers and any penalty costs incurred from cutting short tenancy agreements.4. Potential upturn Firms may be influenced by the potential of an upturn in their market that may reverse the ir authorized financial situation. 5. Government policies In India, the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 puts restrictions on employers in the matter of reducing excess staff by retrenchment, by closure of establishments and the retrenchment work involved lot of legalities and complex procedures. Also, any plans of retrenchment and reduction of staff and workforce are subjected to strong opposition by trade unions.E. Role of Non-Pricing CompetitionNon-price competition refers to firms competing with one another not in terms of reducing the price to attract consumers instead, in form of brand name, advertising, packaging, free home- delivery, free service, sponsorship deals and so on. These are the different forms of non-price competition. The main aim of non-price competition is product development. As products are differentiated in monopolistic competition, to prove and show how ones product is superscript than others- colour, appearance, packaging, skill level etc. It is been done to create an inelastic demand for the product. Following parameters can be used for competition instead of reducing costQualityIf consumers must choose between two products of the same price but they can see that one is of a higher quality, they generally roll the product of higher quality. In this way, if a firm can figure out how to produce an item at a cost comparable to what its competitor charges but make it of higher quality, that firm may be able to steal the market from its competitor. Now in case of automobiles, inwardly a given price range people generally dont comprise with the quality aesthetics.For example Recalls of vehicles sold. Recently, Honda Cars India Ltd recalled 42,672 units of second generation Honda City cars manufactured in 2007 and 2008 to flip their power window switch. HCIL carried out preventive part replacement of power window switch. The company is proactively replacing Power Window Switch which may break down in case water or any other liquid en ters the driver side window. Honda Cars India is carrying out the part replacement as part of a global exercise by Honda Motor Company to ensure stringent quality standards for its products. However, a problem with this approach is that it may restoration some time for consumers to realize any difference in quality.Perception and BrandingIn some cases, little possibility of quality differentiation exists between two products. However, the long-run sustainability of such an approach may be difficult because, as such brand advantages arise through consumer trends, consumer trends may also lead to their demise. We can take example of Hyundais Eon and Marutis Alto 800. Maruti being a well-known brand it was difficult for Hyundai Eon to compete with it. Hyundai India offers its Eon fleet within a price bracket of Rs. 2.8 to Rs. 3.8 lakhs in the country. Maruti Suzuki has pitched its Alto 800 models with a slightly humble pricing falling in the range starting from Rs. 2.4 lakhs that goe s on till Rs. 3.6 lakhs in the Indian auto market.Sales Comparision between Maruti Suzuki Alto 800 and Hyundai EonSource http//blogs.hindustantimes.com/car-nama/2012/07/13/alto-vs-eon-eight-months-on/Product DesignIn some cases, firms may compete by changing the design of their products to make them more appealing without significantly changing production costs or quality levels. Such a strategy can prove effective at stealing business from competitors, but it can also backfire, because it can cause the company to alienate its live consumers, who may be knowingly choosing the existing design over other products with different designs specifically because it appeals to their tastes.Product DifferentiationNot all consumers are the same. By offering a range of similar products geared toward different market sectors, firms can expand their market base. However, such product differentiation can solution in significantly higher overhead costs for production. For example every model has variants in hobby aspectsFuel used (petrol, diesel, LPG, CNG)Cost varients (low end to high end with addition of features like sunroof, airbags etc.) Model Price (INR) MileageVolkswagon Vento PetorlTrendline 7,29,000 15.04Volkswagon Vento Petrol Comfortline 7,75,805 15.04Volkswagon Vento Petrol Style Limited Edition 8,10,805 15.04 Volkswagon Vento diesel motor Trendline 8,44,000 20.54Volkswagon Vento Petrol Highline 8,74,805 15.04Volkswagon Vento Diesel Comfortline 8,90,805 20.54Volkswagon Vento Diesel Style Limited Edition 9,25,805 20.54 Volkswagon Vento Petrol Highline AT 9,74,805 14.4Volkswagon Vento Diesel Highline 9,89,805 20.54Sales StructureWhen two firms are competing with similar products, one may be able to enjoy more market share and a deeper level of penetration due to a more effective and aggressive sales structure. By pleasant in direct sales, firms can appeal to prospective buyers who otherwise would not feel compelled to buy due to advertising or other kinds of se lling. Multilevel marketing is one way in which firms rapidly build their consumer base. However, by turning buyers into sellers as well, such schemes may require significantly higher prices.A emblematic bestow chain in Indian Automobile IndustrySource ImaginMor, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd and United Nations Industrial Development Organisation The description and the role of each of the contributors to the supply chain are discussed below. Third Tier Suppliers These companies provide basic products like rubber, glass, steel, plastic and aluminium to the second tier suppliers. Second Tier Suppliers These companies design vehicle systems or bodies for First Tier Suppliers and OEMs. They work on designs provided by the first tier suppliers or OEMs. They also provide engineering resources for detailed designs. Some of their services may include welding, fabrication, shearing, bending etc. First Tier Suppliers These companies provide major systems directly to assemblers. These compan ies have global coverage, in order to follow their customers to non-homogeneous locations around the world. They design and innovate in order to provide black-box solutions for the requirements of their customers.Black-box solutions are solutions created by suppliers using their own technology to meet the performance and interface requirements set by assemblers. First tier suppliers are responsible not only for the assembly of parts into complete units like dashboard, breaks-axel-suspension, seats, or cockpit but also for the forethought of second-tier suppliers. Automakers/Vehicle Manufacturers/Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) After researching consumers wants and needs, automakers begin designing models which are tailored to consumers demands. The design process normally takes five years. These companies have manufacturing units where engines are manufactured and parts supplied by first tier suppliers and second tier suppliers are assembled. Automakers are the key to the supply chain of the automotive industry.Examples of these companies are Tata Motors, Maruti Suzuki, Toyota, and Honda. Innovation, design capability and branding are the main focus of these companies. Dealers Once the vehicles are ready they are shipped to the regional branch and from there, to the authorised dealers of the companies. The dealers then sell the vehicles to the end customers. Parts and partner These companies provide products like tires, windshields, and air bags etc. to automakers and dealers or directly to customers. Service Providers Some of the services to the customers include servicing of vehicles, repairing parts, or financing of vehicles. Many dealers provide these services but, customers can also choose to go to independent service providers. The increased usage of IT at different tiers of the supply chain is on the increase in all the companies in India. An important finding that emerged from the findings was that the integration of supply chain is being d one at all the cities in the country disregardless of the market share.F. Key Developments in Indian Auto SectorMajor Developments & Investments* Nissan Motor India Pvt Ltd is expecting to sell over 60 per cent more units this year on the back of the launch of its upgraded small car Nissan Micra * Daimler India Commercial Vehicles (DICV) exported its first lot of 64 Fuso trucks manufactured at its Oragadam plant in Chennai. * Mahindra USA, a subsidiary of Mahindra and Mahindra (M&M), will set up an assembly and distribution centre, expanding one of the four tractor facilities in North America, by January 2014 * The Japan-based automobile manufacturer Isuzu Motors local subsidiary Isuzu Motors India has entered into an agreement with Hindustan Motors (HM) for contract manufacturing of Isuzu SUVs and pickup trucks * A year after introducing the popular MINI range of cars in India, luxury car maker BMW has started local production of MINI countryman at its facility in Chennai * New Holland Fiat India plans to invest Rs 1,100 crore (US$ 184.56 million) to set up a new green-field plant in Maharashtra and also to increase its tractor manufacturing capacity by 50 per cent in the next three years* Hero MotoCorp has bought a 49.2 per cent stake in its US-based technology partner Erik Buell belt along (EBR) for US$ 25 million. This is Hero MotoCorps first-ever equity purchase in an overseas company. Also, Hero MotoCorp has entered into the African continent with launch of its brand and products in Kenya, where it has also set up an assembly unit. The company has also partnered with Ryce East Africa to sell its two-wheelers in the country * Daimler is developing its Indian commercial vehicle operations as an export hub. Daimler India Commercial Vehicles (DICV) will export locally assembled trucks from the conglomerates Mitsubishi Fuso range in 15 markets in Asia and Africa.Government InitiativesThe Government of India plans to introduce fuel-efficiency ratings for a utomobiles to embolden sale of cars that consume less petrol or diesel, as per Mr. Veerappa Moily, Union Minister for Petroleum and Natural Gas, Government of India. The Union Budget 2013-14 announced by Mr. P Chidambaram, the Union Finance Minister, Government of India, in the Parliament on February 28, 2013, had a few add-ons for the industry. The analysis by Deloitte on the Union Budget highlighted the following * The period of concession available for specified part of electric and hybrid vehicles till April 2013 has been extended upto March 31, 2015* The basic customs avocation (BCD) on import luxury goods such as high-end motor vehicles, motor cycles, yachts and similar vessels was increased. The duty was raised from 75 percent to 100 percent on Cars / motor vehicles (irrespective of engine capacity) with CIF value more than US$ 40,000 from 60 percent to 75 percent on motorcycles with engine capacity of 800cc or more and on yachts and similar vessels from 10 percent to 25 pe rcent * In addition, an increase in excise duty from 27 to 30 per cent has been allowed for SUVs with engine capacity exceeding 1,500 cc, darn excise duty was decreased from 80 to 72 per cent, in case of SUVs registered solely for taxi purposes* An exemption from BCD on lithium ion automotive battery for manufacture of lithium ion battery packs for supply to manufacturers of hybrid and electric vehicles * The excise duty on chassis of diesel motor vehicles for transport of goods reduced from 14 per cent to 13 per cent Moreover, the Government of India allows 100 per cent foreign direct investment (FDI) in the automotive industry through automatic route. The Government also plans to accelerate the supply of electric vehicles over the next eight years. It is expected that there will be a demand for 5-7 million electricity-operated vehicles by 2020. The contribution of automotive sector in the gross domestic product (GDP) is expected to double, reaching a turnover worth US$ 145 billio n in 2016, with special focus on export of small cars, MUVs, two & three wheelers and auto components, as per the Automotive Mission Plan (AMP) 2006-2016.Road Ahead ball-shaped and Indian manufacturers are focusing their efforts to develop innovative products, technologies and supply chains in the industry. Car makers are launching a slew of car models, for the most part compact SUVs, in the coming months. The automobile body SIAM expects the launches to be able to brighten the market. Lastly, the vision of AMP 2006-2016 sees India, to emerge as the destination of choice in the world for design and manufacture of automobiles and auto components with output reaching a level of US$ 145 billion accounting for more than 10 per cent of the GDP and providing additional employment to 25 million people by 2016. G. Major Challenges and Suggested MeasuresChallenges1. Strong decline in economic growth-* It affects the consumer buying behavior- Buyers driven by fear of job loss, moved aggressi vely to increase their rate of saving. At the same time, high cost and growing longevity of motor vehicles prompted buyers to postpone purchases that they exponent have otherwise made. * Freezing of credit markets meant cancelledorders, unpaid supplier invoices, and temporarily shuttered plants. * High excise duty- 12 % for sub 4 meters cars and 24 % for over 4 meters cars. * High interest rates as well as difficulty to obtain loans for purchase. 2. Duplicate complimentary parts- Indian market has always suffered from echo products and cheap counterfeits. This puts pressure on OEMs to reduce the prices and compete with these cheaper counterfeits. According to the study conducted by market research agency nielson co with acma, 41 % of total spare parts belong to OEMs and OESes, 23 % belong to imported segment and 36 % are duplicate.3. Lack of infrastructure- Lack of proper road infrastructure, resulting into heavy Traffic has become major concern in most of the cities in India. Pa rking problem, parking cost adds to it. Bad roads, Bad drivers on road further add to the problem. 4. handiness of skilled man-power- As per data published by NSDC(National Skill Development Corporation), automobile sector in India is going to face a shortfall of 35 million skilled manpower by 2022. Limited availability of skilled manpower is bound to pose a great challenge to the positive growth of the Indian automotive manufacturing industry.5. High Ownership cost- Small car sales are likely to fall by a couple of percentage points in 2013-14 due to continued uncertainty over income growth, high fuel costs arising from a deprecating rupee and still relatively high inflation.Diesel cars will fall behind their sheen, particularly in the small car segment, due to the gradual deregulation of diesel prices and the expected fall in petrol prices. 6. IR related issues- The $73 billion automobile sector has witnessed abhorrent industrial unrest in the recent 5 years with disputes in Mar uti Suzuki, Hero Honda, Honda Motorcycles and Scooters India, Rico,Hyundai, Ashok Leyland, MRF, Apollo Tyres, Sona Koyo and Toyota Kirloskar Motors Ltd. Thissector, to generate double revenue needs a flexible workforce of 25 million with an amicableatmosphere to hire and fire workers to cope with the cyclical swings in demand for cars, trucksand bikes but the archaic force laws governing employment of contract labour has fan thesetensions.This speculates the lack of efficient implementation machinery. Industrial unrestsaccompanying murders of the executives have also been committed in 2-3 instances recently,demonstrating the urging to lecture the issue by the social partners. 7. Global competition Competition will only increase in the years to come, as more international players enter India and the pace of innovation accelerates. This would elevate both R&D and selling and distribution costs, thereby impacting margins. Despite these headwinds, India would continue to remain an att ractive market, as volumes crosswise segments are projected to grow at a five-year compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of over 10 per cent.Suggested MeasuresIndia has a very low car penetration about 10 per 1000. This number is expected to become 382 by 2025, this means that there is plenty of room to each automobile giant to grow in Indian market without affecting the volume of other competitors. Few of the following suggested measures may have a bounce back effect on the Indian Automobile Industry 1. Friendly government policies Tax benefits for R&D development and Skill related investments, subsidies for hybrid vehicles are the measures if taken can boost the Indian automobile sector. Similarly extension of 200 % weighted import of R & D expense under income tax law andweighted deduction of 150 % for expenditure in skill development by industries seem to be positive steps towards the cause.2. Healthy Industrial Relations through interrupt contract worker policies As in most of the developed countries thecontract workers are covered under the social security provisions and are paid at par with the permanent workers. Such transparent policies may definitely promote positive industrial relations and foster industrial growth. 3. Technology up graduation measures-Automobile industry is slowing down, but at the same time we are seeing long waiting periods for new launches, which means people are no longer going for same old trusty brands and models and want more value for their money.Which gives me hopes that if Auto makers focus on launching more new models and more global launches they will surely find customers. 4. Promoting Hybrid vehicles or better fuel efficiencyTo counter the problems of high fuel prices, its the need of the second to develop higher fuel efficient products and also the products running on alternative fuel to decrease the ownership cost. For this concession on import duty on specified parts of hybrid vehicles are necessary. Stringent l aws and strict exercise to eliminate spurious auto-spare part business. 5. Ensuring easy loan availabilityThe industry should also approach the banks and NBFCs for better and easier loan availability to the car buyers. 100% finance and lower EMI with longer loan tenure will definitely help.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
In the introduction to one of his many books, pot Bowlby quotes Graham Greene Unhappiness in a squirt accumulates because he sees no end to the dark tunnel. The thirteen weeks of a term may just as well be thirteen years. It is quite clear that Johns childhood was not a happy one. He experienced many years of separation from family and it can be connected as to wherefore he developed the theory of attachment. Edward John Mostyn Bowlby, known as John Bowlby, was born in 1907 in London as the fourth of six children. His parents were Sir Anthony Bowlby and maam May Bowlby.John Bowlby was from an top(prenominal) class wealthy family. They raised their children to be strong with strict discipline. Showing signs of partialitys or emotions were looked to be a sign of weakness. His father was a surgeon and was gone most of the time and only saw his children on Sundays. His father also served in WWI, so was absent for quite some time. Bowlbys bring forth was not active in her sons lif e. She, like most upper class woman, thought that spending time with the child or showing affection towards the child would spoil them.Bowlby, therefore, only saw his obtain for a short time each day. It seemed that the only time he was equal to(p) to spend with her was after dinner during tea time (John Bowlby- Child and Adolescent, 2006). She has been described as being cold and reacted to his needs in the very adversary way that one would expect a set out to. John and his siblings were raised by a nanny, which was common within the upper class. The nanny was there until he was 4 and then(prenominal) left. John was sent to boarding school when he was seven. He later went to the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth.He decided at one vertex that military school was not for him and attended Trinity College in Cambridge. He canvas medicine, which eventually lead him to study psychology and graduating in 1928. While studying his psychology at Trinity he took time off, spending six mo nths in a school for maladjusted and delinquent children. He later referred to this as the most important six months of his life. While there, he noticed how many of the children had lost their mothers at a very young age. Bowlby was particularly interested in what happened around separation.Rather than going straight into clinical school, he spent a year teaching in two boarding schools, including one for disturbed children. Their azoic disrupted childhoods intrigued Bowlby, and he decided to combine his medical training with psychoanalytic training. Through his training and studies he became interested in what happened around separation. He and his colleagues notice young children in a hospital and noted their intense and prolonged distress when their parents had not visited. They also did home visits with the children and noticed that the relationship between the mother and child was under stress for weeks or longer.In 1950, Mary Ainsworth joined Bowlby and remained a close and influential colleague throughout his life. Bowlby introduced modern day psychology to the enormousness of mother-infant relationships and their dynamics (McLeod, 2007). Bowlby extensively reviewed then-current material on institutionalized children separated from parents and came to the conclusion that in order for a mentally healthy adulthood, the infant and child should be surrounded with a warm and intimate relationship with their mother.This bond between the two then would give satisfaction and joy to both parent and child. With this information, Bowlby complete that the current explanation from Freud that infants love their mother because of oral gratification was wrong. His new theory stated that infants are social from a very young age, 6 months to less than two years old. The infants become focused on a particular individual or a few individuals. Bowlbys aim was to discover the consequences of difficulties in forming attachments in childhood, and the effects this would hav e on an infants later development.He came up with the idea that infants develop a close emotional bond with an attachment figure primordial in life, and that the success or failure of this earliest of relationships lead the infant to form a mental representation that would have profound effects on their later relationships and their own success as a parent (Attachment Theory, 2011). Although Bowlby was raised in a traditional way for upper class volume one could come to the conclusion that the lack of relationships can be damaging. His theory emphasizes the importance of the mother and infant bond.Bowlbys relationship with his own mother seemed to be negative. When he did have an interaction with her, it was in short periods of time. The only relationship he had with his mother was, therefore, negative. He received no attention or affection from his mother. He also neer received attention from his father, who I think could be a figure in infants life if the mother is not there. T his relationship was also negative. The upper class did not view affection in a positive light. As an infant John was never able to form this attachment to his mother or father for the matter.He did, however, form a deep bond with his nanny. His nanny is the person who raised him and his siblings. It was common for upper class children to form a deep bond with their nannies. They seemed to be the mother or replacement mother. Unfortunately, during a crucial the developmental age of four, Johns nanny left. John has been known to say that this event was tragic and it was like losing a mother (Holmes, 1993). Not having another mother attachment figure then after his nanny left was a negative.Losing a mother figure at such a young age would leave a child not understanding what happened. One would feel lonely and have trouble coping with things later in life. His nanny was the only mother figure he had. To only have that attachment for such a short period of time I feel that it most like ly left John lacking(p) more, like most young children would. I feel that because John never had a long or lasting mother to form that attachment with it conduct him to find interest in this area when he was older.In his studies it was obvious that he was always drawn to children who suffered the same feelings as he did. Many of the children John studied did not have the mother and infant attachment. John was able to recognize this. He always seemed to be intrigued by kids had the same upbringing as him. I feel that it was his connection with these children is what gave him the desire to examine them further. It showed me that he had those feelings as well. John had clearly suffered and most likely was always searching for a reason has to why he felt the way he did.His theory of attachment, I feel, is a true result of his background. I feel that if John had formed an attachment with his mother he never wouldve had any interest in attachment. When someone feels that there is a lack of something in their lives they tend to either bury the feelings or ray of light deeper and come to the route of the problem. John came to the route of the problem and helped develop a theory for mothers and infants around the world, but also for him.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
A lovely evening to tot wholey Tonight I may say, to whole of us seniors, let us congratulate ourselves for we completely dupe been doing so great to make this tale of our lives as fulfilling as we require it and as adventurous as we make it. In four years of staying here in this institution, I may conclude that counting the wonderful moments that we sh argon in our in postgraduate spirits school days is a mind-boggling social occasion because even the depressing ones that we lived through contributed in helping us to be stimulate what we are today.Yes, even being pasaways in front of our teachers, every last(predicate) are considered factors that made this experience complete and of course, a perfect one. And if we are going to look at it, every matter happened in a blast but, much unnoticed. When I made my first footsteps in this school in the early days of my freshman year, one thing I cant forget is our innocent selves, just like a blind person who seeks the chastise( a) path, looking for the white light undersurface the darkness of that innocence.By all(prenominal) means, we looked for the knowledge we need and we craved for the wisdom we essential possess before we depart from this home, from this family. We were so curious about all the things that we encountered usual but we did not know to whom we essential hold on and how to distinguish right from wrong. And because of such blindness, receiving only the radiance of the twilight, some succeeded in knowing all the essential things to be remembered and to be understood by the heart but others got lost and failed to know the indispensable truth of life.We piddle encountered many things as high school students but still, our journey will not stop after this stage. And Im very proud that we never lose hope when failures and disappointments stick our way. We defended what we love, and fought for what we believed in. And as for you, the juniors, in a few more days, your job will be to contin ue the unfinished tasks we will leave loafer as we piece of paper in our respective ships to discover new oceans. In behalf of the seniors, we are thankful because you are our companions and these years will serve as memories that we will cherish forever.After we carry on, after we step on another phase of our lives, you must learn and remember the things that have helped us to finish this stage. Some things that we did, might not have worked out well but we trust that after we leave the portals of this institution, you may learn from our mistakes. Expect the worst but always strive for the best. Whenever you fail, dont lose hope, just stand up. Consider such challenges as a blessing. We must learn from these challenges, particularly the failures so that we will achieve more success. You must also learn how to be humble.Humility is one sign of being educated, of being wise. This will be the start of your time to grow up and make your proclaim we believe that you can do more than what we have done. You must learn to be contented sometimes but grow most of the time. It is always right to be contented but this will sometimes hinder you from growing, from progressing. You only live once, so live your life to the fullest. It is not yet over so never make this as an excuse for you to be contented there are many more fishes in the sea, waiting for you to discover them.Just be thankful for all your achievements and be thankful to the One who is the first and the last thing we must think of, God, because His love for us and His will to guide us is everlasting. To all Juniors, Knowledge has taught us the elements of character that facilitate success. With this key of acceptance we pass on to you the skills to learn, the aptitude to succeed, and the creativity to make a difference. We hope to see all your spectacular dreams come true. GOD BLESS US ALLKey of Responsibility SpeechA lovely evening to all Tonight I may say, to all of us seniors, let us congratulate ours elves for we all have been doing so great to make this tale of our lives as fulfilling as we hope it and as adventurous as we make it. In four years of staying here in this institution, I may conclude that counting the wonderful moments that we divided in our high school days is a mind-boggling thing because even the depressing ones that we lived through contributed in helping us to become what we are today.Yes, even being pasaways in front of our teachers, all are considered factors that made this experience complete and of course, a perfect one. And if we are going to look at it, everything happened in a blast but, much unnoticed. When I made my first footsteps in this school in the early days of my freshman year, one thing I cant forget is our innocent selves, just like a blind person who seeks the right path, looking for the white light behind the darkness of that innocence.By all means, we looked for the knowledge we need and we craved for the wisdom we must possess before we depart from this home, from this family. We were so curious about all the things that we encountered customary but we did not know to whom we must hold on and how to distinguish right from wrong. And because of such blindness, receiving only the radiance of the twilight, some succeeded in knowing all the essential things to be remembered and to be understood by the heart but others got lost and failed to know the indispensable truth of life.We have encountered many things as high school students but still, our journey will not stop after this stage. And Im very proud that we never lose hope when failures and disappointments come our way. We defended what we love, and fought for what we believed in. And as for you, the juniors, in a few more days, your job will be to continue the unfinished tasks we will leave behind as we shroud in our respective ships to discover new oceans. In behalf of the seniors, we are thankful because you are our companions and these years will serve as me mories that we will cherish forever.After we impress on, after we step on another phase of our lives, you must learn and remember the things that have helped us to finish this stage. Some things that we did, might not have worked out well but we trust that after we leave the portals of this institution, you may learn from our mistakes. Expect the worst but always strive for the best. Whenever you fail, dont lose hope, just stand up. Consider such challenges as a blessing. We must learn from these challenges, particularly the failures so that we will achieve more success. You must also learn how to be humble.Humility is one sign of being educated, of being wise. This will be the start of your time to grow up and make your avow we believe that you can do more than what we have done. You must learn to be contented sometimes but grow most of the time. It is always right to be contented but this will sometimes hinder you from growing, from progressing. You only live once, so live your life to the fullest. It is not yet over so never make this as an excuse for you to be contented there are many more fishes in the sea, waiting for you to discover them.Just be grateful for all your achievements and be thankful to the One who is the first and the last thing we must think of, God, because His love for us and His will to guide us is everlasting. To all Juniors, Knowledge has taught us the elements of character that facilitate success. With this key of acceptance we pass on to you the skills to learn, the aptitude to succeed, and the creativity to make a difference. We hope to see all your spectacular dreams come true. GOD BLESS US ALL
Monday, May 20, 2019
Introduction The theme of the enter make-up is The correspond pure(a). The master(prenominal) goal of the work is to identify the principal(prenominal) features of the impersonate hone and to invest the cases of its practice, basing on the theoretical and scientific works of Russian, side of meat linguists. The objectives of the work, in their turn, re interpret ascending steps to the principal(prenominal) goal of the project 1. to give the definition to the evince gross(a) 2. to certify the ways of spurtation of the generate completed separate out 3. to investigate cases of its riding habit in the phrase of faith and in Ameri keister and British slope compargon them 4. o draw the line of demarcation between the use of the indicate completed and the ancient Simple Actuality of the work is the significance of the present perfect decennaryse in the side language. That is a lingual phenomenon, which exists non in e precise language and which is replaced by other tenses while translated into other languages appears to be unity of the main constituents of side of meat grammar. Novelty of the motif lies in communicative approaches to linguistic analysis of the use of the present perfect tense aimed at acquiring the communicative competence.Theoretical value of the composing is based on the analyze data enquiren from the works of American and side prominent linguists. Practical value of the work may be useful in practical grammar or in a daily use. The course paper consists of 4 parts Introduction, Main Part, Conclusion and Bibliography. The Main Part consists of 2 chapters. Thus, Chapter I of the present paper is devoted to the general remarks the present perfect tense and comprises 3 dits 1. annals of the Present gross(a) tense 2.The Formation of the Present accurate 3. Differences between the other(prenominal) In certain(prenominal) and the Present entire In this chapter we can find out general information just about t he origin of perfect tenses and the present perfect tense itself, and the ways of forming the present perfect, and the differences between the one fourth dimension(prenominal)(a) undecomposable and the present perfect in use. Chapter II includes 2 head ups 1. The use of the Present Perfect in the blame 2. Differences in use of the Present Perfect in American and British English.This chapter is devoted to the practical side of the work. We investigate the use of the present perfect in the sentence and the differences of the use of the present perfect in American and British English. Chapter Two can be interesting with the presentation of peculiar characteristics of the use of the present perfect of two main trends of English American and British English. The footing I chose the theme The Present Perfect was the home of not having this tense in the for us familiar languages Russian and Kyrgyz.The Past Simple and The Present Perfect be replaced by hardly one tense in Russian c entirelyed . The nature of this tense seems to be familiar for the learners of English at first sight, just on that point are m all exceptions and particular cases of their use. CHAPTER I What the Present Perfect tense is 1. 1 History of Perfect Tenses and the Present Perfect The Present Perfect is an analytical form which is strengthened up by means of the secondary verb to project in the Present dubious and the participle of the imaginary verb (e. g. I keep back worked. He has worked, etc. The word perfect in the adduce came from a Latin root referring to the theme of completionof creation now finishedrather than to perfection in the star of no flaws (although the latter sense of perfect actu every last( assert)y evolved by extension from the former, because whateverwhatthing for example, a drawing or a piece of pottery is finished when it no ampleer has any flaws). So perfect tenses were named thus because of the idea that (in some uses in some languages, at least) they referred to activitys that were finished with respect to the present (for example, I have eaten all the bread involves a sense of finality).However, as seen above, the name is a misnomer in the sense that not all uses of present perfect constructions involve an idea of completion. In Old English the verb to have, use as the predicate in the sentence, was sometimes followed by direct object with participle II of a transitive verb connect to it on the function of a predicative adjective. The participle agreed in number, gender, case with the direct object. He has that obtain written= . As the state of the object ( written) was the result of the arrant(a) exercise, the spirit of the vocalizer began to be interested in he accomplish. The construction did not show whether the motion expressed by participle II was performed by the field of study of the sentence or by some other agent. It was from constructions where the subject of the sentence was the doer of t he body process denoted by the noncurrent participle, that the modern English perfect form developed. The participle disordered its form of agreement with the noun-object and changing its place (He has written), became closely committed with the verb to have. Both elements lost their independent content and merged into one sense unit the analytical form of the Modern English Perfect.He has written that h elderly in the action of writing is accomplished by him at present and as a result of it the book is in a written state. Thus, what was originally a free syntactical combination has now sullen into an analytical tense form. Such constructions, in which the doer of the action expressed by the participle was not the subject of the sentence, have fluid survived in Modern English as free syntactical combinations He had trinity horses killed under him. I have my dress made here. Killed and made are placid prophetical adjectives to the direct object horses and dress.In constru ction with the verb to be, participle II of an intransitive verb was apply as the predicative to the subject with which agreed in number, gender and case, and the verb to be had the function of a link-verb in a compound-nominal predicate He is ? ecumen = O? . When to have and to be forms turned into perfect, the verb to have began gradually to be apply as an addendum verb with both transitive and intransitive verbs I have seen her. I have throw in. As a selection of the old constriction, to be is still used when the state is stressed May Fielding was already come and so was her baffle. Dickens) When he was kaput(p), my mother asked me all about the day I had had (Dickens)He is gone to the Leas (Bronte) The present perfect is a grammatical combination of the present tense and the perfect aspect, used to express a past event that has present consequences. An example is I have eaten (so Im not hungry). Depending on the special(prenominal) language, the events described by pres ent perfects are not necessarily completed, as in I have been eating or I have lived here for five old age. The present perfect is a compound tense in English, as in some(prenominal) other languages, convey that it is formed by combining an auxiliary verb with the main verb. In modern English, the auxiliary verb for forming the present perfect is always to have. * I have eaten * You have gone * He has arrived In many another(prenominal) other European languages, the equivalent of to have (e. g. , German haben, French avoir) is used to form the present perfect (or their equivalent of the present perfect) for most or all verbs. However, the equivalent of to be (e. g. German sein, French etre) serves as the auxiliary for other verbs in some languages such as German, Dutch, French, and Italian (but not Spanish or Portuguese). Generally, the verbs that take to be as auxiliary are intransitive verbs denoting social movement or change of state (e. g. , to arrive, to go, to fall). In many European languages, including pattern German, French and Italian, the present perfect verb form usually does not convey perfect aspect, but rather perfective aspect. In these languages, it has usurped the component part of the simple past (i. . preterite) in spoken language, and the simple past is now really only used in formal written language and literature. In standard English, Spanish, and Portuguese, by contrast, the present perfect (perfect) and simple past (perfective aspect) are unbroken distinct. The Present Perfect form denotes an action completed originally the present moment (and connected with it) or before a definite moment in the past or future. It is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to have in the required tense and Participle II of the notional verb 1. The formation of the Present Perfect 1. The Present Perfect is formed by means of the Present Indefinite of the auxiliary verb to have and Participle II of the notional verb. 2. In the interrogative for m the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject. In the negative form the negative particle not is placed later the auxiliary verb. Affirmative Interrogative Negative I have workedHe has workedShe has workedWe have workedYou have workedThey have worked rush I worked? Has he worked? Has she worked? Have we worked? Have you worked? Have they worked? I have not workedHe has not workedShe has not workedWe have not workedYou have not workedThey have not worked 3. The contracted affirmative forms are Ive worked Hes worked Youve worked The contracted negative forms are I havent worked He hasnt worked You havent worked 4. The negative-interrogative forms are Has she not worked? Hasnt she worked? Have you not worked? Havent you worked? 1. 3 Differences in between the Past Indefinite and the Present Perfect It follows from the rules above that the Present Perfect is not used when there is an indication of past time in the sentence.It is the Past Indefinite that is used in this case becaus e the mention of the definite past time ties the action to the past- time expanse as it were, and it cannot advanced luck through to the present. e. g. Put on your clothes at once and come with me. tho what is it? Has something happened? Im triskaidekaphobic so. Your husband was taken ill this afternoon. M. Poirot, you have no idea of what I have gone through. I tell apart your wife died adept over a year ago. Similarly, it is the Past Indefinite that is used in questions go intod by when. e. g.When did you actually arrive? When did you change your mind? The Past Indefinite is to a fault used in special questions etymon with where and how when they refer to the past events. The Present Perfect is not common here because the attention in such sentences is drawn to the circumstances of the action rather than to the occurrence itself, which means that the speaker has a definite action in mind. e. g. Where did your uncle receive his guests? Right here. How did he get i n? I asked, and Evans utter, Oh, he has a key. Where is my hat?Where did I leave my hat? check off. The question Where have you been? can be asked of the person who has undecomposed come. e. g. Hello, Mum. Im sorry Im late Where have you been? In all other cases it should be Where were you e. g. Did the party go slay nicely? I dont pick out. I wasnt there. Where were you? In special questions beginning with interrogative words other than those mentioned above (e. g. who, what, why, what for and other), both the Present Perfect and the Past Indefinite are possible. The choice depends on the importation to be conveyed.If address is made to an action which is past or definite in the minds of the people speaking, or if there is a change of scene, the Past In definite is used if reference is made to an action which is still valid as part of the present situation, the Present Perfect should be used. e. g. What have I make against you? she burst out defiantly. Nothing. Th en why cant we get on? I know she gave him a in effect(p) scolding. What did he do? Looking up at her he give tongue to Dorothys gone to a garden party. I know. Why havent you gone excessively? Why didnt you speak to my father yourself on the boat? Note 1. As to general questions, the Present Perfect as well as the Past Indefinite may be found in them because they may inquire either about forward-looking facts which are heavy for the present or about events that are definite in the mind of the speaker. Note 2. In the undermentioned example the verb to be is used in the meaning to visit, to go. Hence it takes the preposition to after it. It is noteworthy that to be acquires this meaning only if used in the Present Perfect or the Past Perfect. e. g.Renny said He has been to Ireland too Have you been to a symphony concert? he continued. Note 3. The combination has/have got may be used as the Present Perfect of the verb to get (which is not very common, though). e. g. I dont know whats got into Steven today. He has got into financial difficulties and needs cash. moreover it is often used as a set phrase which has two different meanings to possess (a) and to be obliged (b). e. g. a) Have you got a telephone? she looked round the room. I dont think weve got any choice, said Francis, ) No he said loudly, there are some risks youve got to take. It doesnt matter what caused it, said Martin. We have got to take the consequences In this case the time reference also changes has/have got is the Present Perfect only in form it actually indicates a present state of things. Note 4. She is gone is a survival of the old Present Perfect which was formed with certain verbs by means of the auxiliary to be. In present-day English it is to be treated as a set phrase meaning she is not here any longer. CHAPTER II The Use of the Present Perfect . 1 The use of the Present Perfect in the condemn The Present Perfect falls within the time sphere of the , present and is not used in narration where reference is made to past events. It follows from that that the Present Perfect is used in present-time contexts, i. e. conversations, newspaper and piano tuner reports, lectures and letters. The Present Perfect has three distinct uses. They ordain be further referred to as Present Perfect I, Present Perfect II and Present Perfect III. 1) Present Perfect I is the Present Perfect proper.It is used to express an accomplished action which is viewed from the moment of speaking as part of the present situation. tending in this case is centred on the action itself. The circumstances under which the action occurred appear unimportant and external at the moment and need not be mentioned. e. g. He is very sensitive, I have ascertained that. Ive had a talk with him. He places he has all the proof he wants. Such news Weve bought a racehorse. Ive spoiled everything, she said. His secretary said tactfully Ive put off your other appoint- ments for a while. It should be oddly noted that though the action expressed in the Present Perfect is regarded as already accomplished, it belongs to the present-time sphere and is treated as a present action. It becomes obvious from the periphrasis Ive heard the doctors opinion I know the doctors opinion. Shes gone off to the woods She is in the woods. A similar idea of an accomplished action is also traced in such expressions referring to the present as He is awake. Im late. The work is done. The door is locked, etc.Since it is the action itself that the Present Perfect makes im- portant, it is frequently used to open up conversations (newspaper and radio reports, or letters) or to introduce a new topic in them. However, if the conversation (report or letter) continues on the same subject, going into detail, the Present Perfect usually changes to the Past Indefinite, as the latter is used to refer to actions or sit- uations which are definite in the mind of the speaker. Usually (but not necessarily) some concrete circumstances of the action (time, place, cause, purpose, manner, etc. are mentioned in this case. e. g. You are all right. You are coming round. Are you feeling better? Im quite all right. except what has happened? Where am I? Youre in a dug-out, You were buried by a bomb from a trench-mortar. Oh, was I? But how did I get here? Someone dragged you. I am afraid some of your men were killed, and several(prenominal)(prenominal) others were wounded. Pussy Cat, Pussy Cat, Where have you been? Ive been to London To look at the Queen. What did you see there? I truism a poor mouse Under her chair. As is seen from the above examples, the Present Perfect is used to name a new action, whereas the Past Indefinite is used to refer back to a definite action and the attention in this case is often drawn rather to the circumstances attending the action than to the action itself. Note. The functions of the Present Perfect and the Past Indefinite may be in a way compared with tho se of the coy and the definite articles. The nebulous article is used when an object is just named (e. g. Glue me a book. She is a teacher. I have a brother).Likewise the Present Perfect serves to name an accomplished action (see the examples above). Both the definite article and the Past Indefinite are used when an object or an action, respectively, is definite in the mind of the speaker (e. g. The book is on the table. The teacher returned the compositions,) As has been said, Present Perfect I is mainly used to introduce a new topic. But it may also be used to sum up a situation. e. g. Ive done bad things, I said, but I dont think I could have done some of the things youve done. Youve so often been friendful in the past. Ive tried, said Joseph. Weve all been young once, you know. Weve all felt it, Roy. Im afraid Ive been horribly boring and talked too more, she said as she pressed my hand. Agatha has told me everything. How cleverly you have both kept your secret, You and you r wife have been very good to me. Thank you. In accordance with its main function just to name an accomplished action the Present Perfect is broadly speaking used when the time of the action is not given. e. g. He sat down. You have not changed, he said. No? What have you come for? To discuss things. Mr has told me such wonderful things about you. Walter. I havent thought about it, she returned. However, sometimes, even though there may be no indication of past time in the sentence, the Present Perfect cannot be used because reference is made to happenings which are definite in the mind of the speaker (either because the action has already been mentioned or because the situation is very well known to the listener). In this case the use of the Past Indefinite is very common. e. g. Did you respite well? I didnt understand you. Did you enjoy the play?Did you have a good journey Did you resembling the book? (trip, ride, flight, day, time)? What did you say? Did you see the accide nt? Did you hear what he said? Im sorry I lost my temper. I didnt hear your question. It is possible, however, to use the Present Perfect when there is an adverbial modifier of time in the sentence that denotes a finale of time which is not over only, e. g. today, this morning time, this week, this month, this year, etc. e. g. What Rosanna has done tonight is seduce enough, (Tonight is not over yet. ) This year we have taken only one assistant. (This year is not over. I have had only one new dress this summer, exclaimed June. (This summer is not over yet. ) Conversely, if the period is over or reference is made to a particular past point of time within that period, the Past Indefinite is used. e. g. Did you see the letter in the Times this morning? (It is no longer morning. ) No. I havent had time to look at a paper today, (Today is not over yet. ) Whom do you think I passed in Richmond Park today (Today is not over, but the action took place at a particular point of time withi n today, namely when the person was in Richmond Park. I wasnt very well this morning, but Im perfectly all right now. (This morning is over. ) Note. It should be noted that sometimes an adverbial modifier of place points to a past period of time. e. g. Did you see him at the theatre? (= when you were at the theatre) I ran into her in Oxford Street. (= when I was in Oxford Street) The Present Perfect may be found with certain adverbs of indefinite time and frequency such as just ( ), not yet, already, before, always, ever, never, often, seldom, recently, late ly, of late, etc. e. g. Shes just helpless being run over.I havent even had coffee yet. He has never made a sixpence by any of his books. Have you heard of him lately? What is the point? Ive made it clear enough before. However, the use of the Present Perfect is by no means obligatory with the above mentioned adverbs, because any other finite form may be used with these adverbs if it is required by the situation. e. g. He w as studying to be a pianist, but he never touches the piano now. He noticed that the leaves of the chestnut were already beginning to turn yellowness and brown. His room was not yet furnished, and he liked it to remain empty. Note 1.Note the use of the Past Indefinite with just now. e. g. I told you just now I had never had time for much fun. Note 2. Russian students of English, under the influence of the Russian language, tend to use the adverb already nearly in every sentence containing the Present Perfect. That is not characteristic of the English language as it is sufficient to use the Present Perfect alone to express an accomplished action. The addition of already appears redundant in many cases. Present Perfect II serves to express an action which began before the moment of speaking and continues into it or up to it.This grammatical meaning is mainly expressed by the Present Perfect Continuous. However, the Present Perfect Non-Continuous is found in the followers cases a)Its use is compulsory with stative verbs. e. g. Ive known the young lady all her life. Ive loved her since she was a child. But weve been in conference for two hours, he said. Its time we had a tea break. b)With some dynamic verbs of durative aspect meaning the Present Perfect is sometimes used instead of the Present Perfect Continuous with little difference in meaning. e. g. Its a pretty room, isnt it? Ive slept in it for fifteen years. Im glad to meet you, he said. Ive waited a long while and began to be afraid Id not have the opportunity. Hes looked after Miss Gregg for many years now. As to terminative verbs, they can only have the meaning of Present Perfect I and never of Present Perfect II. Since it is often difficult to draw the line between durative and terminative verbs, it is recommended that students of English should use the Present Perfect Continuous with all dynamic verbs to express an action begun in the past and continued into the present. )The Present Perfect is pre ferred to the Present Perfect Continuous in negative sentences, when it is the action itself that is completely negated. e. g. Shall we sit down a little? We havent sat here for ages. I was just having a look at the paper, he said. I havent read the paper for the last two days. She hasnt written to me for a year, said Roy. It is noteworthy that Present Perfect II is associated with certain time indications either the whole period of the duration of the action is marked or its starting point.In the former case we find different time indications. Some expressions are introduced by the preposition for and sometimes in (e. g. for an hour, for many years, for the last few days, for a long time, for so long, for ages, in years, in a long while, etc. )- Other expressions have no prepositions (e. g. these three years, all this week, all along, so long, all oneys life, etc. ). e. g. The picture has been mine for years and years. Ive felt otherwise about him for some time. Why havent I see n you all these months? said Hankins.We havent had any fun in a long while. Ive wanted to go to the sea all my life. The starting point of the action is indicated by the adverb since, a prepositional phrase with since or a clause introduced by the conjunction since. e. g. But, Dinny, when did you meet him? Only ten days ago, but Ive seen him every day since. The sun has been in the room since the morning. But she has seemed so much better since you started the injections. In the clause introduced by since the Past Indefinite is used to indicate the starting point of an action.However, we sometimes find in both parts of such complex sentences two parallel actions which began at the same time in the past and continue into the present. In this case the Present Perfect is used in both clauses, e. g. Ive loved you since Ive known you. It should be noted that the indication of time is indispensable to Present Perfect II because otherwise its meaning in most cases would be changed. It w ould come to denote an accomplished action which is part of the present situation. cf. Ive been taught to do it for three years. I have been taught to do it. But we met him here about a month ago.We havent heard from him since. We havent heard from him. Care should be taken to get along between the use of the Present Perfect and the Past Indefinite when the period of duration is expressed by a prepositional phrase with for. If the period of duration belongs to the past time sphere, the Past Indefinite should be used. It is only if the period of duration comes close to the moment of speaking or includes it that the Present Perfect is used. Cf. I have lived like this, he said, for two years, and I cant stand it anymore. I teach History at a secondary school.I went to the University here for four years and got a degree. The same is true of questions beginning with how long. Are you conjoin? Yes. How long have you been married? Are you married? No. Im divorced. How long were yo u married? 3) Present Perfect III is found in adverbial clauses of time introduced by the conjunctions when, before, after, as before long as, till and until where it is used to express a future action. It shows that the action of the subordinate clause will be accomplished before the action of the principal clause (which is usually expressed by the Future Indefinite).This use of the Present Perfect is structurally dependent as it is restricted only to the above mentioned type of clauses. e. g. Youll find, said Fred, that youll long for home when you have left it. As soon as we have had some tea, Ann, we shall go to inspect your house. Ill take you back in my car but not till Ive made you some coffee. Sometimes the Present Indefinite is found in this type of clauses in the same meaning as the Present Perfect. The choice of the form depends on the lexical meaning of the verb. With durative verbs the Present Perfect is necessary. e. g. When you have had your tea, well see about it. I can tell you whether the machine is good or bad when I have tried it. With terminative verbs the use of both forms is possible, Cf. He says when he retires hell grow roses. When Ive finished this I must go and put the baby to bed. Mother will stay at home until we return. Your mother wouldnt like me. You cant possibly say that until youve met her. 2. 2 Differences in Use of the Present Perfect in American and British English In British English the present perfect is used to express an action that has occurred in the recent past that has an effect on the present moment.For example Ive lost my key. groundwork you help me look for it? In American English the pastime is also possible I lost my key. Can you help me look for it? In British English the above would be considered incorrect. However, both forms are generally accepted in standard American English. Other differences involving the use of the present perfect in British English and simple past in American English include alr eady, just and yet. British English Ive just had lunch Ive already seen that film Have you finished your homework yet? American EnglishI just had lunch OR Ive just had lunch Ive already seen that film OR I already saw that film. Have your finished your homework yet? OR Did you finish your homework yet? American English speakers do not use the present perfect for events that are still connected to the present. However, most Americans have a narrower perception of such connections than do other English speakers, particularly the British. For example, the British will say have you had eat this morning, but Americans will often say did you have breakfast this morning. in that respect is no difference in grammar the difference is in the fact that Americans often think of the morning as being past history, whereas the British tend to see breakfast as still being part of the day, at least for a longer time than Americans do. Both groups use the past simple to describe things that they g rok to be unconnected with the present, and both groups use the present perfect to describe things that they grasp to be connected with the present. The difference is in the perception, not the grammar.Some Americans may well use the present perfect, if thats how they perceive the action in question. Conversely, some British speakers may use the past simple, if they think of the action in question as being isolated in the past. The important thing to remember is that, in many expressions, the choice between present perfect and past simple depends solely on what the speaker has in mind. If the speaker perceives something as being completely finished and unconnected to the present, hell use the past simple if he still sees some sort of connection to the present, hell use the present perfect.Two different people talking about the exact same thing may choose to use two different tenses to describe it. There are some cases in which one tense or the other is gramatically necessary, of co urse, but there are many cases in which both are acceptable. If you specify a particular time in the past, for example, you commonly use the past simple (I did it yesterday). And if you say Ive lived here for a year, the implication is that you still live here, whereas if you say I lived here for ayear, the implication is that you no longer live here.Similarly, if a charwoman says Ive had two children, things are going well, but if she says I had two children, it might be a good idea to change the subject. The distinction between present perfect and past simple is difficult to formulate in terms of rules because the rules are quite complex. I usually explain it in terms of the speakers perceptions and via specific examples that illustrate the different ways in which the tenses can be contrasted. If someone says lav went to the movie, it tells me several things. It tells me that John is not with the speaker, for example.It implies that the speaker probably does not expect to enco unter John while he is at the movie. It implies that nothing the speaker is doing right now is connected to Johns trip to the movie. If someone says John has gone to the movie, that, too, tells me several things. It implies that Johns trip to the movie is recent. It implies that something about Johns action is connected to some present state or action in the speakers mind (for example, she may be planning to join him, or she may be describing the reason for his absence in the present, as when answering the telephone).In many cases, the choice between the two is almost arbitrary. In isolation, the present perfect sounds more recent, and/or implies that something may have happened more than once in the past, and implies a connection with the present somehow, but in many contexts these distinctions are unimportant. If someone answers the phone and is asked about John, she will probably say He has gone to the movie, but she might also very well say He went to the movie, particularly if she is American (Americans have a narrower perception of present time than do many other English speakers).Conclusion After investigation of the theme The Present Perfect Tense I came to the endpoint that although the perfect tenses are called as the secondary tenses in the works of Russian scientists Ganshina and Vasilevskaya, it appears to be one of the main and indispensable constituents of the English language tense form. Every action leads to the results. Without results the action is not valuable. So the subject matter of using the perfect tenses is in expressing the results, consequences and the level of accomplishment and duration of the action.The present perfect tense and its use follow the learners of the English language from the first stage of the learning and of a great importance on the same level as the verb to be or there is/ there are constructions. So, on the creation of the theoretical and practical investigation of the use of perfect tenses in the works of pr ominent Russian and English scientists and within American and British fiction conforming to the examined theory, we have reached the following results of the research work The Perfect form denotes an action completed before the present moment (and connected with it) or before a definite moment in the ast or future. It is formed by means of the auxiliary verb to have in the required tense and Participle II of the notional verb. The Present Perfect is used in the following cases 1. The Present Perfect denotes a completed action connected with the present. 2. The Present Perfect is used in adverbial clauses of time after the conjunctions when, till, until, before, after, as soon as to denote an action completed before a definite moment in the future. 3. The Present Perfect denotes an action which began in the past, has been going on up to the present and is still going on.In this case either the starting point of the action is indicated or the whole period of duration. The preposition for is used to denote the whole period of duration. Since is used to indicate the starting point of the action. If the conjunction since introduces a clause, the verb in this clause is in the Past Indefinite. In British English the present perfect is used to express an action that has occurred in the recent past that has an effect on the present moment. For example Ive lost my key.In American English the following is also possible I lost my key. In British English the above would be considered incorrect. However, both forms are generally accepted in standard American English. Other differences involving the use of the present perfect in British English and simple past in American English include already, just and yet. British English Ive just had lunch American English I just had lunch OR Ive just had lunch American English speakers do not use the present perfect for events that are still connected to the present.However, most Americans have a narrower perception of such connection s than do other English speakers, particularly the British. Bibliography 1. ?. ?. , , , 1968, 227 . 2. ?. ?. , A Grammar of Present Day, , ,1990, 100 . 3. Greenbaum Sidney, Oxford English Grammar, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1996, 652 p. 4. Greenbaum Sidney, Quirk R. , Leech G. , Svartvik J, A University Grammar of English, Moscow, 1982, p. 158 5. Newsperson Otto, University of Grammar, Chicago and London, The