Thursday, November 28, 2019
9 Surprising Ways Writers Can Supplement Their Writing Income 9 Surprising Ways Writers Can Supplement Their Writing Income Val Breit is the founder of The Common Cents Club, where she coaches others to take charge of their finances, their future, and their freedom so they can spend more time doing what they love (without going broke). She especially loves strategizing ways to turn a love for writing into multiple streams of income as a stay-at-home mom.YouÃ¢â¬â¢re an author. You love to write. And youÃ¢â¬â¢d love to earn a full-time income from writing, but so far, those book sales are not paying the bills. You may even wonder if you should throw in the towel on this author dream.Honestly, most authors are in that boat - myself included.But I was determined to stay with my kids rather than return to my stressful day job, so I ventured outside of the author box to discover new ways to supplement my income. Now IÃ¢â¬â¢m excited to share with you ten of the best ways you can earn money from your book and your self-publishing skills to keep the dream alive.1. Start SpeakingAs a writer, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a fairly good chance youÃ¢â¬â¢re an introvert like me. I had no intention of public speaking when I published my first book. Then I readÃ You Must Write a BookÃ by Honoree Corder and vowed if I was ever invited to speak and share my experience and knowledge, I would accept.As a first-time, no-name author, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think it would happenÃ¢â¬ ¦ until it did. Without any mention of speaking on my website, social media, or in my book, I received paid invitations to speak just a few months after publishing. Albeit nerve-racking, I connected with new readers, expanded my author platform, and even paid a few bills! Taking advantage of speaking opportunities is yet another way to earn money related to your book.2. Become a GhostwriterItÃ¢â¬â¢s always a good idea to offer a bonus item for your readers in exchange for their email address. Anyone whoÃ¢â¬â¢s already read your book is interested in what you have to say - now imagine having an entire list of those people right at your fingertips the next time you publish a book. While this strategy doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t pay immediately, it makes selling future books much easier. Not sure how to start growing your email list as an author? This free course is a fantastic place to start.8. Monetize Your BlogDo you already have a blog that youÃ¢â¬â¢re directing your readers to? Not only can you gather email addresses and build a relationship with them, you can also use affiliate links or ads to monetize it. Again, this is not a get-rich-quick method, but if you love blogging and already have traffic coming to your blog, monetizing it is fairly simple. People like Pat Flynn and Michelle Shroeder-Gardner have mastered and teach affiliate income strategies for bloggers.9. Freelance WritingLast but not least, freelance writing is another way to earn money by writing. Make a Living Writing is a great site for learning how to find writing jobs and keep a full roster of freelance clients. There are websites in just about every niche that pay $50 or $100+ per article.By saying Ã¢â¬Å"yesÃ¢â¬ to opportunities outside your comfort zone, you can find new ways to earn money beyond your book sales.Have you tried any of these money-making methods before? Which are you most excited to try? Leave your thoughts in the comments below and weÃ¢â¬â¢ll get back to you right away.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Attitudes, Personality, Behavior Ajzen 1988 Essays Attitudes, Personality, Behavior Ajzen 1988 Essay Attitudes, Personality, Behavior Ajzen 1988 Essay 6 FROM INTENTIONS TO ACTIONS [From: I. Ajzen (1988), Attitudes, personality, Behavior. Chicago: Dorsey Press] It*s a long step from saying to doing. Cervantes In the previous chapter we began to unravel the mystery surrounding prediction and explanation of specific action tendencies by turning our attention to behavioral dispositions that correspond precisely to the particular action tendency of interest. Based on this principle of compatibility, the present chapter introduces a conceptual framework for the prediction of specific action tendencies, a framework that deals with a limited set of dispositional antecedents assumed to guide specific action tendencies, with the origins of these dispositions, and with the relations among them. Incorporated into this conceptual framework are the two behavior-specific dispositions discussed in Chapter - perceived behavioral control and attitude toward the behavior - as well as a few additional concepts required for a more complete account of the determinants of specific action tendencies. The case of willful behavior Many behaviors in everyday life, which are often the behaviors of greatest interest to personality and social psychologists, can be thought of as being largely under volitional control. That is to say, people can easily perform these behaviors if they are so inclined, or refrain from performing them if they decide against it. In Western countries most people can, if they so desire, vote in political elections, watch the evening news on television, buy toothpaste at a drugstore, pray at a nearby church or synagogue, or donate blood to their local hospitals. If they wish, they may also decide against engaging in any of these activities. The important point about willful behaviors of this kind is that their occurrence is a direct result of deliberate attempts made by an individual. The process involved can be described as follows. In accordance with deliberations to be described below,, a person forms an intention to engage in a certain behavior. Intentions are assumed to capture the motivational factors that have an impact on a behavior; they are indications of how hard people are willing to try, of how much of an effort they are planning to exert, in order to perform the behavior. These intentions remain behavioral dispositions until, at the appropriate time and opportunity, an attempt is made to translate the intention into action. Assuming that the behavior is in fact under volitional control, the attempt will produce the desired act. This implies that the disposition most closely linked to a specific action tendency is the intention to perform the action under consideration. In other words, when dealing with volitional behavior people can be expected to do what they intend to do. Expressions of behavioral intention should thus permit a highly accurate prediction of corresponding volitional action. Predicting behavior from intention The literature contains many examples of intentions that are highly correlated with volitional behavior. Table 6. 1 shows a few representative findings. It can be seen that intentions have been found to predict a variety of corresponding action tendencies, ranging from simple strategy choices in laboratory games to actions of appreciable personal or social significance, such as having an abortion, smoking marijuana, and choosing among candidates in an election. It is worth noting that the intentions assessed in these ATTITUDES, PERSONALITY, AND BEHAVIOR studies were highly compatible with the behaviors in terms of the target, action, context, and time elements. Thus, in the study reported by King (1975), the behavior of interest was whether or not college students would attend church services in the course of a 2-week vacation. This behavior could be predicted with a high degree of accuracy by asking the students, prior to the recess, how likely it was that they would attend church services at least every 2 weeks. Available evidence also supports the idea that intentions are close antecedents of overt actions. If intentions are indeed the immediate determinants of volitional behavior then they should correlate more strongly with the behavior than do other kinds of antecedent factors. Consistent with this argument, the predictive validity of intentions is typically found to be significantly greater than that of attitudes toward the behavior. Consider, for example, the study by Manstead et at. (1983) on the prediction of breastfeeding versus bottle-feeding of newborn infants. As we saw in Chapter 5, mothers* attitudes toward these alternative feeding practices had a correlation of 0. 7 with the feeding method they actually employed. By way of comparison, inspection of Table 6. 1 shows that the intention- behavior correlation in this study was 0. 82. Very similar results were obtained with respect to cooperation in Prisoner*s Dilemma games (Ajzen, 1971; Ajzen and Fishbein, 1970). In Chapter 5, the correlations between attitudes toward choosing the cooperative alternative and actual game behav ior were reported to have ranged from 0. 63 to 0. 70. When predicted from intentions, correlations with game behavior were found to be in the 0. 82Ã¢â¬â 0. 85 range. Another example is contained in a study by Ajzen et at. (1982). The use of marijuana by college students served as one of the behavioral criteria in this study. The students evaluated Ã¢â¬Å"my smoking marijuana in the next 3 or 4 weeksÃ¢â¬ on a set of semantic differential scales and also indicated, on a 7point scale, the likelihood that they would perform this behavior. About 4 weeks later they were contacted by telephone and asked to indicate whether or not they had smoked marijuana during the time that had passed. In Table 6. 1 it can be seen that this self-report of marijuana use correlated 0. 2. with intentions; its correlation with attitude toward smoking marijuana was, at 0. 53 significantly lower. FROM INTENTIONS TO ACTIONS 3 Stability of intentions Intentions are thus closely linked to volitional actions and can predict them with a high degree of accuracy. This is not to say, however, that a measure of intention will always correlate strongly with the corresponding behav ior. Clearly, intentions can change over time; the longer the time interval, the greater the likelihood that unforeseen events will produce changes in intentions. A measure of intention obtained before the changes took place cannot be expected to predict behavior accurately. It follows that accuracy of prediction will usually decline with the amount of time that intervenes between measurement of intention and observation of behavior. Imagine, for example, a woman who intends to vote for the Democratic candidate in a race for the United States Senate. After her intention is assessed, she learns - by watching a television interview with the candidate a few days before the election - that he opposes abortion and equal rights for women. As a result, she Ã¢â¬Å"changes her mind,Ã¢â¬ decides to vote for the Republican candidate instead, and actually does so in the election. Her actual voting choice corresponds to her most recent intention, but it could not have been predicted from the measure of intention obtained at the earlier point in time. Several studies have demonstrated the disruptive effects of unforeseen events. For instance, SongerNocks (1976a, 1976b) assessed intentions to choose the cooperative alternative at the beginning of a 20trial, two-person experimental game. One-half of the pairs of players were given feedback after each trial which informed them about the choices made by their partners and of the pay-offs to each player. The other pairs were given no such information. Feedback concerning the partner*s competitive or cooperative behavior may, of course, influence a player*s own intentions regarding future moves in the game. Consistent with this argument, Songer-Nocks reported that providing feedback significantly reduced the accuracy with which initial intentions predicted actual game behavior. More indirect evidence regarding the disruptive effects of unanticipated events is available from studies that have varied the amount of time between the assessment of intentions and observation of behavior. Since the likelihood of unforeseen events will tend to increase as time passes, we would expect to find stronger intention- behavior correlations with short rather than long periods of delay. Fishbein and Coombs (1974) reported findings in support of this expectation. In this study, intentions to vote for Goldwater in the 1964 United States presidential election correlated o. o with self-reported voting choice when the intention was measured 1 month prior to the election and 0. 89 when it was measured during the week preceding the election. Sejwacz et al. (1980) also obtained support for the disruptive potential of temporal delay in a study of weight loss. A sample of college women indicated their intentions to perform eight weight-reducing behaviors (avoid snacking between meals , participate in sports on a regular basis, etc. ) at the beginning of a 2-month period and again 1 month later. Correlations were computed between initial intentions and reported behavior over the 2-month period, and between subsequent intentions and reported behavior during the final month. As expected, intention- behavior correlations were stronger for the 1-month period than for the 2-month period. For example, the correlation between intention to avoid long periods of inactivity and performance of this behavior (as recorded by the women in weekly logs) was higher when the time period was 1 month (r = 0. 72) than when it was 2 months (r = 0. 47). Considering all eight behaviors, the average correlation increased from o. 1 for the 2-month period to 0. 67 for the 1-month period. Explaining volitional behavior: a theory of reasoned action The finding that intentions often predict behavior quite accurately does not in itself provide much information about the reasons for the behavior. Beyond confirming that the behavior in question is under volitional control, it is not very illuminating to dis cover that people do what they intend to do. Since we are interested in understanding human behavior, not merely in predicting it, we must try to identify the determinants of behavioral intentions. Ajzen and Fishbein*s (1980; Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975) theory of reasoned action, mentioned in Chapter z, is designed to accomplish precisely this goal; that is, the theory is concerned with the causal antecedents of volitional behavior. As its name implies, the theory of reasoned action is based on the assumption that human beings usually behave in a sensible manner; that they take account of available information and implicitly or explicitly consider the implications of their actions. Consistent with its focus on volitional behavior, and ATTITUDES, PERSONALITY, AND BEHAVIOR 4 n line with the findings reported earlier, the theory postulates that a persons intention to perform (or not to perform) a behavior is the immediate determinant of that action. Barring unforeseen events, people are expected to act in accordance with their intentions. Attitudes and subjective norms According to the theory of reasoned action, intentions are a function of two basic determinants, one personal in na ture and the other reflecting social influence. The personal factor is the individual*s attitude toward the behavior, first encountered in Chapter and again earlier in this chapter. Unlike general attitudes toward institutions, people, or objects that have traditionally been studied by social psychologists, this attitude is the individual*s positive or negative evaluation of performing the particular behavior of interest. The second determinant of intention is the person*s perception of social pressure to perform or not to perform the behavior under consideration. Since it deals with perceived normative prescriptions, this factor is termed subjective norm. Generally speaking, people intend to perform a behavior when they evaluate it positively and when they believe that important others think they should perform it. The theory assumes that the relative importance of attitude toward the behavior and subjective norm depends in part on the intention under investigation. For some intentions attitudinal considerations are more important than normative considerations, while for other intentions normative considerations predominate. Frequently, both factors are important determinants of the intention. In addition, the relative weights of the attitudinal and normative factors may vary from one person to another. Figure 6. is a graphic representation of the theory of reasoned action as described up to this point. Many studies have provided strong support for the hypothesized links between intention as the dependent variable and attitude toward the behavior and subjective norm as the independent variables. Most studies have used multiple linear regression procedures to estimate, in terms of a multiple correlation (R), the simultaneous predictive power of attitudes and subjective norms, as well as the rela tive contributions of the two predictors in terms of standardized regression coefficients. Table 6. 2 shows the results obtained in the studies discussed earlier (see Table 6. 1) as well as a few additional examples. It can be seen that, with respect to a variety of different intentions, consideration of attitudes and subjective norms permitted highly accurate prediction. The multiple correlations in the studies listed ranged from 0. 73 to 0. 89. The relative importance of the two predictors is revealed by inspecting FROM INTENTIONS TO ACTIONS 5 columns 3 and 4. In all cases, attitudes and subjective norms both made significant contributions to the prediction of intentions, although in eight of the ten studies, the relative contribution of attitudes exceeded that of sub jective norms. Perhaps not surprisingly, however, women*s decisions to have an abortion, and a couple*s decision to have another child, were more strongly affected by perceived social pressure than by personal attitudes. ATTITUDES, PERSONALITY, AND BEHAVIOR 6 For many practical purposes this level of explanation may be sufficient. We can to some extent account for the intentions people form by examining their attitudes toward the behavior, their subjective norms, and the relative importance of these two factors. However, for a more complete understanding of intentions it is necessary to explore why people hold certain attitudes and subjective norms. Antecedents of attitudes toward a behavior. In Chapter 2 we discussed, in general terms, the formation of attitudes within the framework of the theory of reasoned action. There we showed how evaluations of any object follow reasonably from the beliefs we hold about the object. We can now apply these ideas to the formation of attitudes toward a behavior. According to the theory of reasoned action, attitude toward a behavior is determined by salient beliefs about that behavior, termed behavioral beliefs. Each behavioral belief links the behavior to a certain outcome, or to some other attribute such as the cost incurred by performing the behavior. For example, a person may believe that Ã¢â¬Å"going on a low sodium dietÃ¢â¬ (the behavior) Ã¢â¬Å"reduces blood pressure,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"leads to a change in life style,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"severely restricts the range of approved foods,Ã¢â¬ and so forth (outcomes). The attitude toward the behavior is determined by the person*s evaluation of the outcomes associated with the behavior and by the strength of these associations. As we see in Chapter 2 the evaluation of each salient outcome contributes to the attitude in proportion to the person*s subjective probability that the behavior will produce the outcome in question. By multiplying belief strength and outcome evaluation, and summing the resulting products, we obtain an estimate of the attitude toward the behavior, an estimate based on the person*s salient beliefs about the behavior. This expectancy-value model is described symbolically in Equation 6. 1, where AB stands for attitude toward behavior B; bi is the belief (subjective probability) that performing behavior B will lead to outcome i; ei is the evaluation of outcome i; and the sum is over the n salient beliefs. It can be seen that, generally speaking, a person who believes that performing a given behavior will lead to mostly positive outcomes will hold a favorable attitude toward performing the behavior, whereas a person who believes that performing the behavior will lead to mostly negative outcomes will hold an unfavorable attitude. AB = 3biei (6. 1) Several of the studies cited earlier have reported data that confirm the expectancy-value model of attitude described in Equation 6. 1. For example, King (1975) assessed behavioral beliefs concerning the advantages and disadvantages of attending church services at least every 2 weeks as well as evaluations of these outcomes. Responses were used to compute an estimate of attitude toward attending church services in accordance with Equation 6. 1. In addition, King used an evaluative semantic differential to obtain a relatively direct measure of the same attitude. The correlation between the direct evaluation of the behavior and the belief-based measure was found to be 0. 69. High correlations between direct and belief-based measures of attitude have also been reported with respect to such behaviors as voting choice in a United States presidential election (r = 0. 79), using birth control pills (r = 0. 79), and choice of a career orientation (r = 0. 81) (see Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). Antecedents of subjective norms. Subjective norms, the second major determinant of intentions in the theory of reasoned action, are also assumed to be a function of beliefs, but beliefs of a different kind, namely the person*s beliefs that specific individuals or groups approve or disapprove of performing the behavior. Serving as a point of reference to guide behavior, these individuals and groups are known as referents. For many behaviors, the important referents include a person*s parents, spouse, close friends, coworkers, and, depending on the behavior involved, perhaps such experts as physicians or tax accountants. The beliefs that underlie subjective norms are termed normative beliefs. Generally speaking, people who believe that most referents with whom they are motivated to comply think they should perform the behavior will perceive social pressure to do so. Conversely, people who believe that most referents with whom they are motivated to comply would disapprove of their performing the behavior will have a subjective norm that puts pressure on them to avoid performing the behavior. The relation between normative beliefs and subjective norm is expressed symbolically in Equation 6. . Here, SN is the subjective norm; bj is the normative belief concerning referent j; mj is the person*s motivation FROM INTENTIONS TO ACTIONS 7 to comply with referent j; and n is the number of salient normative beliefs. SN % 3bjmj (6. 2) Subjective norms can be assessed in a relatively direct manner by asking respondents to judge how likely it is that most people who are important to them would approve of their per forming a given behavior. Such direct measures have been compared with belief-based estimates of subjective norms, computed in accordance with Equation 6. . Correlations between the two types of measures are generally quite high, ranging from 0. 60 to 0. 80 (see Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). The discussion up to this point shows how volitional behavior can be explained in terms of a limited number of concepts. Through a series of intervening steps the theory of reasoned action traces the causes of behavior to the person*s salient beliefs. Each successive step in this sequence from behavior to beliefs provides a more comprehensive account of the factors that determine the behavior. At the initial level behavior is assumed to be determined by intention. At the next level these intentions are themselves explained in terms of attitudes toward the behavior and subjective norms. The third level accounts for attitudes and subjective norms in terms of beliefs about the consequences of performing the behavior and about the normative expectations of relevant referents. In the final analysis, then, a person*s behavior is explained by considering his or her beliefs. Since people*s beliefs represent the information (be it correct or incorrect) they have about themselves and about the world around them, it follows that their behavior is ultimately determined by this information. 1 The informational foundation of behavior A concrete example may help clarify the role of beliefs in determining the performance of a specific behavior. Manstead et a!. (1983) compared the beliefs of mothers who breast-fed their babies with mothers who used the bottle-feeding method. Based on prior research in the field, the investigators selected the six reasons women cite most frequently for breast-feeding their babies and the six reasons they cite most frequently for bottle-feeding their babies. With respect to each of these 12 salient behavioral beliefs, women about to give birth were asked to provide two measures: their subjective probabilities that a given feeding method is associated with the cited consequence, and their evaluations of that consequence. The following are examples for each feeding method. Behavioral beliefs Breast-feeding protects a baby against infection likely :___:___:___:___:___:___:___: unlikely Bottle-feeding provides incomplete nourishment for a baby likely :___:___:___:___:___:___:___: unlikely Outcome evaluations Using a feeding method that protects a baby against infection is very important :___:___:___:___:___:___:___: completely unto me important to me Using a feeding method that provides complete nourishment for my baby is very important :___:___:___:___:___:___:___: completely unto me important to me ATTITUDES, PERSONALITY, AND BEHAVIOR 8 Table 6. shows the average likelihood rating (7 = likely, 1 = unlikely) provided by mothers who breast-fed their babies and mothers who bottle-fed their babies. Statistical significance between the two groups is indicated. As can be seen, the two groups of mothers differed significantly on all six of the behavioral beliefs about breast feeding. Examination of these differences reveals some of the reasons for choosing on e or the other feeding method. Although all women tended to agree that breast-feeding establishes a close bond between mother and baby, the women who held this belief more strongly were more likely to choose the breast-feeding method. In a similar vein, the choice of breast-feeding increased with the perceived likelihood that this method is good for the mother*s figure, provides the best nourishment for a baby, and protects a baby against infection. On the other hand, the more a woman believed that breast-feeding is embarrassing for the mother or limits her social life, the less likely she was to use this method. With respect to the bottle-feeding method, the two groups of mothers differed significantly on only three of the six behavioral beliefs. An examination of the significant differences shows that perceived outcomes of bottle-feeding which best explained the choice of this method were the beliefs that it is a very convenient method, that it enables the father to be involved in feeding, and that it is a trouble-free feeding method. It is possible, in a similar fashion, to compare the outcome evaluations of mothers who breast-fed their babies with those of mothers who chose the bottle-feeding method. Such a comparison provides additional information about the reasons for choosing one method over the other. Table 6. presents the average outcome evaluations for the two groups 1 = completely unimportant, 7 = very important). Examining the six evaluations that distinguished significantly between the two groups, it can be seen that mothers tended to choose the breast-feeding method if, in comparison to mothers who chose the bottle-feeding method, they judged as relatively important the following outcomes: having a good figure, establishing a close bond with their babies, providing complete nourishment for their babies, and FROM INTENTIONS TO ACTIONS 9 protecting their babies against infection. In addition, these mothers also rated as relatively unimportant the outcomes of feeling embarrassed, allowing the baby*s father to be involved in the feeding, and being able to see exactly how much milk baby has had. The study by Manstead et al. (1983) also reported interesting data concerning the effects of normative beliefs on the choice of breast-versus bottle-feeding. The salient normative referents identified in this context were the baby*s father, the mother*s own mother, her closest female friend, and her medical adviser (usually a gynecologist). With respect to each referent, normative beliefs about breastfeeding and about bottle-feeding were assessed, as was motivation to comply with each referent. The following scales illustrate the procedures used. Normative beliefs The baby*s father thinks that I definitely should :___:___:___:___:___:___:___: definitely should breast-feed not breast-feed Motivation to comply In general, how much do you care what the baby*s father thinks you should do? Do not care at all :___:___:___:___:___:___:___: Care very much Table 6. 5 shows the average normative beliefs for the two groups of mothers. The differences between mothers who breast-fed their babies and mothers who used the bottle are statistically significant for each normative belief. Inspection of the normative beliefs for mothers who used the breast-feeding method reveals that, in their opinions, important referents strongly preferred this method over the alternative bottle-feeding method. In contrast, women who believed that their referents had no strong preferences for either method were more likely to feed their babies by means of a bottle. ATTITUDES, PERSONALITY, AND BEHAVIOR 10 Finally, the mothers* average motivations to comply with each of the four salient referent individuals are presented in Table 6. 6. Both groups of mothers were highly motivated to comply with the baby*s father, and they had moderately strong motivations to comply with their own mothers and closest female friends. The only significant difference emerged with respect to the women*s medical advisers. Mothers who eventually decided to breast-feed their babies were more highly motivated to comply with their medical advisers than were mothers who eventually decided to use The bottle. This is consistent with the finding that the former mothers perceived their medical advisers to be strong advocates of the breastfeeding method. (see Table 6. 5). To summarize briefly, research on the theory of reasoned action describes how people tend to proceed on a course of action in quite a deliberate manner. The initial considerations deal with the likely consequences of performing a certain behavior and expectations of important referent individuals or groups. Depending on the evaluation of the behavior*s likely consequences and motivation to comply with referent sources, attitudes and subjective norms emerge that guide the formation of behavioral FROM INTENTIONS TO ACTIONS 11 intentions. Barring unforeseen events that might change the intentions, and contingent on the behavior being under volitional control, the intentions are carried out under appropriate circumstances. The case of incomplete volitional control The theory of reasoned action was developed explicitly to deal with purely volitional behaviors. In this context it has proved quite successful. Complications are encountered, however, when we try to apply the theory to behaviors that are not fully under volitional control. A well-known example is that many smokers intend to quit but, when they try, fail to attain their goal. In the theory of reasoned action, intentions are the prime motivating force and they mediate the effects of other factors, i. e. of attitude toward the behavior and of subjective norm. The stronger are people*s intentions to engage in a behavior or to achieve their behavioral goals, the more successful they are expected to be. However, the degree of success will depend not only on one*s desire or intention, but also on such partly nonmotivational factors as availability of requisite opportunities and resources. To the extent that people have the required opportunities and resources, and intend to perform the behavior, they should succeed in doing so. At first glance, the problem of behavioral control may appear to apply to a limited range of actions only. Closer scrutiny reveals, however, that even very mundane activities, which can usually be executed (or not executed) at will, are sometimes subject to the influence of factors beyond one*s control. Such a simple behavior as driving to the supermarket may be thwarted by mechanical trouble with the car. Control over behavior can thus best be viewed as a continuum. On one extreme are behaviors that encounter few if any problems of control. A good case in point is voting choice: once the voter has entered the voting booth, selection among the candidates can be done at will. At the other extreme are events, such as sneezing or lowering one*s blood pressure, over which we have very little or no control. Most behaviors, of course, fall somewhere in between these extremes. People usually encounter few problems of control when trying to attend lectures or read a book, but problems of control are more readily apparent when they try to overcome such powerful habits as smoking or drinking or when they set their sights on such difficult-to-attain goals as becoming a movie star. Viewed in this light it becomes clear that, strictly speaking, most intended behaviors are best considered goals whose attainment is subject to some degree of uncertainty. We can thus speak of behavior-goal units, and of intentions as plans of action in pursuit of behavioral goals (Ajzen, 1985). Control factors Many investigators have in recent years turned their attention to the question of volitional control (e. g. KuhI, 1985; Liska, 1984; Sarver, 1983; Triandis, 1977). On the following pages we review some of the factors that can influence the degree of control a person has over a given behavior. Internal factors Various factors internal to an individual can influence successful performance of an intended action. Some of these factors are readily modified by training and experience while others are more resistant to change. Information, skills, and abilities. A person who intends to perform a behavior may, upon trying to do so, discover that he or she lacks the needed information, skills, or abilities. Everyday life is replete with examples. We may intend to convert another person to our own political views, to help a boy with his mathematics, or to repair a malfunctioning record player, but fail in our attempts because we lack the required verbal and social skills, knowledge of mathematics, or mechanical aptitudes. To be sure, with experience we tend to acquire some appreciation of our abilities; yet new situations arise frequently, and failure to achieve our goals due to the lack of requisite skills is the order of the day. The lack of ability in an unusual sense is illustrated in a study by Vinokur-Kaplan (1978) who assessed a couple*s intention to have another child the following year. When interviewed 12 months ATTITUDES, PERSONALITY, AND BEHAVIOR 12 later, actually having given birth to a child correlated o. 55 with intentions, a correlation which, although significant, is lower than the intention- behavior correlation observed in many other contexts. Having another child is, of course, only partially under volitional control, since fecundity, miscarriage, and other factors also mediate attainment of this goal. Finally, forgetting is an interesting type of internal factor frequently cited as a reason for failure to carry out an intention (see Kuhl, 1985). A planned appointment or a deadline intended to be met can Ã¢â¬Å"slip a person*s mindÃ¢â¬ . In their study on blood donation, Pomazal and Jaccard (1976) interviewed people who had indicated an intention to donate but whose names did not appear on the official donor list. Among the reasons frequently mentioned was that they had simply forgotten all about it. Emotions and compulsions. Skills, abilities, and information may present problems of behavioral control, but it is usually assumed that, at least in principle, these problems can be overcome. In contrast, some types of behavior are subject to forces that seem to be largely beyond our control. People sometimes appear unable to cease thinking or dreaming about certain events, to stop stuttering, or to hold a tic in check. These compulsive behaviors are performed despite intentions and concerted efforts to the contrary. Emotional behaviors seem to share some of the same characteristics. Individuals are often not held responsible for behaviors performed under stress or in the presence of strong emotions. We usually attribute little behavioral control to a person who is Ã¢â¬Å"overcome by emotion. Ã¢â¬ Violent acts and poor performance are expected under such conditions, and there seems to be little we can do about it. In sum, as we move beyond purely volitional acts, various internal factors may influence the successful performance of intended behavior. It may be fairly easy to gain control over some of these factors, as when we acquire the information r skills needed to perform a behavior. Other factors, such as intense emotions, stress or compulsions, are more difficult to neutralize. External factors Also impinging on a person*s control over attainment of behavioral goals are situational or environmental factors external to the individual. These factors determine the extent to which circumstances facilitate or interfere with the performance of the behavior. Opp ortunity. It takes little imagination to appreciate the importance of incidental factors or opportunities for the successful execution of an intended action. An intention to see a play cannot be carried through if tickets are sold out on a particular night or if the person is involved in a serious accident on the way to the theater. The Pomazal and Jaccard (1976) study of blood donation again provides relevant examples. When students who had failed to carry out their intentions to donate blood were interviewed, they often mentioned that such unforeseen obligations or events as exams, job interviews, and coming down with a cold had prevented them from participating in the blood drive. Given the presence of many disruptive factors, it is hardly surprising that the correlation between intention and behavior was found to be of only moderate magnitude (r = 0. 52). In some instances, students came to give blood but were turned away because of overcrowding. When these individuals were considered to have performed the behavior, the intention- behavior correlation increased to 0. 59. At first glance, lack of opportunity may appear equivalent to occurrence of unanticipated events that bring about changes in intentions, as discussed previously. While it is true that in the absence of appropriate opportunities people may come to change their intentions, there is an important difference between the two cases. When new information becomes available after intentions have been stated, the new information may affect salient beliefs about the behavior and thus lead to changes in attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions; at the end of this process the person is no longer interested in carrying out the original intention. By way of contrast, lack of opportunity disrupts an attempted behavior. Here, the person tries to carry out the intention but fails because circumstances prevent performance of the behavior. Although the immediate intention will be affected, the basic underlying determinants need not have changed. Consider again the intention to see a particular play. Reading a negative review or being told by a FROM INTENTIONS TO ACTIONS 13 friend that the play is not worth seeing may influence the person*s beliefs such as to produce a more negative attitude toward the intended behavior and perhaps also a more negative subjective norm. As a result the person may no longer intend to see the play on the night in question or on any other night, unless and until other events again cause a change of mind. Contrast this with the person who intends to see the play, drives to the theater, but is told that there are no more tickets available. The environmental obstacle to performance of the behavior will force a change of plan; but it need not change the person*s attitude or subjective norm with respect to seeing the play. Instead, it may merely cause the person to try again on a different night. Note also that lack of opportunity poses a problem only when the performance of a behavior on a single occasion is to be predicted. Behavioral tendencies across occasions are relatively unaffected because appropriate opportunities are likely to be present on at least some occasions. Dependence on others. Whenever the performance of a behavior depends on the actions of other people, there exists the potential for incomplete control over behavioral goals. A good example of behavioral interdependence is the case of cooperation. One can cooperate with another person only if that person is also willing to cooperate. Experimental studies of cooperation and competition in laboratory games have provided ample evidence for this interdependence. For example, Ajzen and Fishbein (1970) reported correlations of 0. 92. and 0. 89 between cooperative strategy choices of the players in two Prisoner*s Dilemma games. These high correlations suggest that a person*s tendency to make cooperative choices depends on reciprocation by the other player. As is true of time and opportunity, the inability to behave in accordance with intention because of dependence on others need not affect the underlying motivation. Often an individual who encounters difficulties related to interpersonal dependence may be able to perform the desired behavior in cooperation with a different partner. Sometimes, however, this may not be a viable course of action. A wife*s adamant refusal to have more children will usually cause the husband eventually to abandon his plan to enlarge the family, rather than shift his effort to a different partner. In short, lack of opportunity and dependence on others often lead only to temporary changes in intentions. When circumstances prevent the performance of a behavior, the person may wait for a better opportunity and, when another person fails to cooperate, a more compliant partner may be sought. However, when repeated efforts to perform the behavior result in failure, more fundamental changes in intentions can be expected. A theory of planned behavior The above discussion makes clear that many factors can disrupt the intention- behavior relation. Although volitional control is more likely to present a problem for some behaviors than for others, personal deficiencies and external obstacles can interfere with the performance of any behavior. Collectively, these factors represent people*s actual control or lack of control over the behavior. [See also the discussions of Ã¢â¬Å"facilitating factorsÃ¢â¬ by Triandis Ã¢â¬Å"the context of opportunityÃ¢â¬ by Sarver (1983), Ã¢â¬Å"resourcesÃ¢â¬ by Liska (1984) and Ã¢â¬Å"action controlÃ¢â¬ by KuhI (1985). ] Given the problem*s ubiquity, a behavioral intention can best be interpreted as an intention to try performing a certain behavior. A father*s plan to take his children fishing next weekend is best viewed as an intention to try to make time for this activity, to prepare the required equipment, secure a fishing license, and so forth. The successful performance of the intended behavior is contingent on the person*s control over the many factors that may prevent it. Of course, the conscious realization that we can only try to perform a given behavior will arise primarily when questions of control over the behavior are salient. Thus, people say that they will try to quit smoking or lose weight, but that they intend to go to church on Sunday. Nevertheless, even the intention to attend Sunday worship services must be viewed as an intention to try performing this behavior since factors beyond the individual*s control can prevent its successful execution. A recent attempt to provide a conceptual framework that addresses the problem of incomplete volitional control is Ajzen*s theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985; Ajzen and Madden, 1986; Schifter and Ajzen, 1985). This conceptual framework is an extension of the theory of reasoned action. As in the original model, a central factor in the theory of planned behavior is an individual*s intention to perform the ehavior of interest. In contrast to the original version, however, the theory of planned behavior postulates three, rather than two, conceptually independent determinants of intentions. The first ATTITUDES, PERSONALITY, AND BEHAVIOR 14 two - attitude toward the behavior and subjective norm - are the same as before. The third and novel antecedent of intention is the deg ree of perceived behavioral control. This factor, discussed in Chapter 5, refers to the perceived ease or difficulty of performing the behavior and it is assumed to reflect past experience as well as anticipated impediments and obstacles. As a general rule, the more favorable the attitude and subjective norm with respect to a behavior, and the greater the perceived behavioral control, the stronger should be the individual*s intention to perform the behavior under consideration. Note that the theory of planned behavior does not deal directly with the amount of control a person actually has in a given situation; instead, it considers the possible effects of perceived behavioral control on achievement of behavioral goals. Whereas intentions reflect primarily an individual*s willingness to try enacting a given behavior, perceived control is likely to take into account some of the realistic constraints that may exist. To the extent that perceptions of behavioral control correspond reasonably well to actual control, they should provide useful information over and above expressed intentions. A structural model of the theory of planned behavior is shown in Figure 6. 2. Figure 6. 2 shows two important features of the theory of planned behavior. First, the theory assumes that perceived behavioral control has motivational implications for intentions. People who believe that they have neither the resources nor the opportunities to perform a certain behavior are unlikely to form strong behavioral intentions to engage in it even if they hold favorable attitudes toward the behavior and believe that important others would approve of their performing the behavior. We thus expect an association between perceived behavioral control and intention that is not mediated by attitude and subjective norm. In Figure 6. this expectation is represented by the arrow linking perceived behavioral control to intention. The second feature of interest is the possibility of a direct link between perceived behavioral control and behavior. As noted earlier, in many instances, the performance of a behavior depends not only on motivation to do so but also on adequate control over the behavior in question. It follows that perceived behavioral control can help predict goal attainment independent of behavioral intention to the extent that it reflects actual control with some degree of accuracy. In other words, perceived behavioral control can FROM INTENTIONS TO ACTIONS 15 influence behavior indirectly, via intentions, and it can also be used to predict behavior directly because it may be considered a partial substitute for a measure of actual control. Of course, in some situations perceived behavioral control is not particularly realistic. This is likely to be the case when the individual has little information about the behavior, when requirements or available resources have changed, or when new and unfamiliar elements have entered into the situation. Under those conditions a measure of perceived behavioral control may add little to the accuracy of behavioral prediction. The broken arrow in Figure 6. 2 indicates that the link between perceived behavioral control and behavior is expected to emerge only when there is some agreement between perceptions of control and the person*s actual control over the behavior. Like the theory of reasoned action, the theory of planned behavior deals with the antecedents of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control, antecedents which in the final analysis determine intentions and actions. Recall that, at the most basic level of explanation, behavior is assumed to be a function of salient information, or beliefs, relevant to the behavior. Three kinds of beliefs are distinguished: behavioral beliefs which are assumed to influence attitudes toward the behavior, normative beliefs which constitute the underlying determinants of subjective norms, and control beliefs which provide the basis for perceptions of behavioral control. Earlier we discussed the effects of behavioral beliefs on attitude toward the behavior, and the effects of normative beliefs on subjective norms. In a similar fashion, control beliefs are assumed to provide the basis for perceived behavioral control. According to the theory of planned behavior, among the beliefs that ultimately determine intention and action is a set that deals with the presence or absence of requisite resources and opportunities. These beliefs may be based in part on past experience with the behavior, but they will usually also be influenced by second-hand information about the behavior, by observing the experiences of acquaintances and friends, and by other factors that increase or reduce the perceived difficulty of performing the behavior in question. The more resources and opportunities individuals think they possess, and the fewer obstacles or impediments they anticipate, the greater should be their perceived control over the behavior. As with behavioral and normative beliefs, it is possible to separate out these control beliefs and treat them as partially independent determinants of behavior. Just as beliefs concerning consequences of a behavior are viewed as determining attitudes, and normative beliefs are viewed as determining subjective norms, so beliefs about resources and opportunities may be viewed as underlying perceived behavioral control. Consider the case of regular attendance at class lectures in college. As part of a pilot study, Ajzen and Madden (1986) elicited salient beliefs about factors that might help or interfere with the performance of this behavior. The following ten factors were mentioned with the greatest frequency: conflicting events, sickness, family obligations, employment, being tired or listless, transportation problems, upsetting personal problems, oversleeping or forgetting, heavy load imposed by other classes, and failure to prepare class assignments. In the experiment itself, control beliefs were assessed by asking respondents to rate, on 7-point scales, the likelihood that each of the ten factors would occur. The sum over these responses provided a belief-based measure of perceived behavioral control. In addition, Ajzen and Madden also asked students to judge more directly how much control they thought they had over regular class attendance. Specifically, the following three questions were posed at separate points in the questionnaire. 1. How much control do you have over whether you do or do not attend this class every session? omplete :___:___:___:___:___:___:___: very little control control 2. For me to attend every session of this class is easy :___:___:___:___:___:___:___: difficult 3. If I wanted to, I could easily attend this class every session likely :___:___:___:___:___:___:___: unlikely ATTITUDES, PERSONALITY, AND BEHAVIOR 16 A direct measure of perceived behavioral control was obtained by summing over responses to th ese three items. A correlation of 0. 54 confirmed the hypothesized link between this direct measure and the belief-based measure of perceived behavioral control described above. The theory of planned behavior is a general model in which the theory of reasoned action represents a special case. As noted earlier, the original model was designed to deal with behaviors over which people have a high degree of volitional control and it assumed that most behaviors of interest in the domains of personality and social psychology fall into the volitional category (see Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). The theory of planned behavior, however, explicitly recognizes the possibility that many behaviors may not be under complete control, and the concept of perceived behavioral control is added to handle behaviors of this kind. However, when behavioral control approaches its maximum and issues of control are not among an individual*s important considerations, then the theory of planned behavior reduces to the theory of reasoned action. In those instances, neither intentions nor actions will be affected appreciably by beliefs about behavioral control and the only remaining dispositions of interest are attitude toward the behavior and subjective norm. Prediction of intentions Earlier in this chapter we reviewed some of the empirical evidence in support of the theory of reasoned action. Clearly, this evidence is also supportive of those aspects of the theory of planned behavior that overlap with the theory of reasoned action. The theory of planned behavior, however, goes beyond the theory of reasoned action in that it introduces the concept of perceived behavioral control and proposes a direct causal effect of perceived control on intention, an effect not mediated by attitude or subjective norm. Evidence for this aspect of the theory is examined in the present section. Schifter and Ajzen (1985) applied the theory of planned behavior to the prediction of weight loss intentions, and actual weight reduction, among female college students. Attitudes toward losing weight during the following 6 weeks were assessed by means of several evaluative semantic differential scales. To measure subjective norms, participants were asked to indicate, again on 7-point scales, whether people who were important to them thought they should lose weight over the next 6 weeks, and whether those people would approve or disapprove of their losing weight. As a measure of perceived behavioral control, participants indicated, on a scale from 0 to 100, the likelihood that if they tried they would manage to reduce their weight over the next 6 weeks and their estimates that an attempt on their part to lose weight would be successful. The final measure of interest for present purposes dealt with intentions to lose weight over the following 6 weeks. Each woman indicated, on several 7-point scales, her intention to try to reduce weight and the intensity of her decision. The first row in Table 6. shows the correlations of intentions to lose weight with attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. It can be seen that all three predictors correlated significantly with intention. A hierarchical regression analysis was performed on intentions to lose weight in which attitudes and subjective norms were entered on the first step, and perceived behavioral control on the second. 2 This analysis reveals the effect of perceived behavior al control on intentions after the effects of attitude and subjective norm have been statistically removed. Thus, the hierarchical regression analysis tests the idea that perceived behavioral control contributes to intentions over and above the influence of the two factors contained in the original theory of reasoned action. The results of the analysis confirmed the importance of perceived behavioral control as a third determinant of intentions to lose weight. Although the multiple correlation of intentions with attitudes and subjective norms alone was quite high (r = 0. 65), it increased significantly - to 0. 72 - with the addition of perceived behavioral control. All three independent variables had significant regression coefficients, indicating that each made an independent contribution to the prediction of weight loss intentions. The importance of perceived control over a behavioral goal has also been demonstrated in the context of scholastic performance (Ajzen and Madden, 1986). In one part of the investigation, undergraduate college students enrolled in upper division courses expressed, at the beginning of the semester, their intentions to attempt getting an Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ grade in the course, as well as their attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control over this behavioral goal. Attitudes toward getting an Ã¢â¬Å"A,Ã¢â¬ subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were each assessed by means of several direct questions and on the basis of FROM INTENTIONS TO ACTIONS 17 a set of relevant salient beliefs. The measure of intention was a set of three direct questions dealing with intentions to try to get an Ã¢â¬Å"A. Ã¢â¬ Before turning to the prediction of intentions it is worth noting that the study provided support for the hypothesized relation between direct and belief-based measures of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. The correlations between the two types of measures ranged from 0. 7 to 0. 57 (p ; 0. 01). The second row in Table 6. 7 shows the correlations of intentions to get an Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ with the direct measures of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that attitudes and perceived behavioral control each had a significant effect on intention. On the basis of attitude toward the behavior and subjective norm alone, the multiple correlation with intention was 0. 48 (P ; 0. 01). The introduction of perceived behavioral control on the second step of the regression analysis raised the multiple correlation significantly to the level of 0. 5. Losing weight and getting an Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ in a course are both behavioral goals over which people clearly have only limited volitional control. In addition to the desire to lose weight, people have to be familiar with an appropriate diet or exercise regimen, and they have to be capable of adhering to the diet or exercise program in the face of distractions and temptations. Similarly, getting an Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ in a course depends not only on strong motivation but also on intellectual ability, availability of sufficient time for study, resisting temptations to engage in activities more attractive than studying, and so on. It is not surprising, therefore, that perceived behavioral control is found to influence intentions to pursue or not to pursue these behavioral goals. There is also evidence, however, that even when problems of volitional control are much less apparent, people*s intentions are affected by their control beliefs. In the investigation by Ajzen and Madden (1986) records were kept of students* attendance of eight class lectures following administration of a questionnaire. The questionnaire contained measures of intention to attend classes regularly, attitudes toward this behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. The latter three variables were again assessed by means of direct questions and, more indirectly, on the basis of sets of salient beliefs. The correlations between the belief indices and the direct measures were significant, ranging from 0. 47 to 0. 54 (p ; 0. 01). As to the prediction of intentions from the direct measures, in the third row of Table 6. 7 it can be seen that perceived behavioral control correlated significantly with intentions, as did attitudes and subjective norms. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that on the basis of attitudes and subjective norms alone, the multiple correlation with intentions was (P ; 0. 1). However, the addition of perceived behavioral control on the second step improved the prediction significantly, resulting in a multiple correlation of 0. 68. The findings presented up to this point indicate that the original theory of reasoned action, with its implication that perceived behavioral control can influence intention only indirectly via a ttitude or subjective norms, is not sufficient. The addition of perceived behavioral control as a direct determinant of intention improved prediction of several behaviors, and this effect was independent of attitudes and subjective norms. ATTITUDES, PERSONALITY, AND BEHAVIOR 18 Prediction of goal attainment The theory of planned behavior also suggests the possibility that perceived behavioral control may be related to behavior not only indirectly, via its effect on intentions, but also directly, over and above the effect due to intentions. This possibility was explored in the studies described above in which attempts were made to predict attainment of three behavioral goals: attending lectures on a regular basis, getting an Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ in a course, and losing weight. Table 6. shows the correlations between intentions and perceived behavioral control on the one hand and attainment of the behavioral goal on the other. With respect to regular class attendance, both intentions and p erceived control correlated significantly with actual behavior. A hierarchical regression analysis, however, showed that the addition of perceived behavioral control did not improve prediction of behavior significantly. This was expected since class attendance is a behavior over which students have considerable volitional control. The addition of a (subjective) measure of control thus added little information of value in the prediction of actual behavior. In contrast, losing weight does pose problems of volitional control. As would therefore be expected, the results with respect to attainment of this goal showed the relevance of perceived behavioral control quite dramatically. As can be seen in the second row of Table 6. 8, both intentions and perceived control correlated significantly with goal attainment, but perceived control was the better predictor of the two. The addition of perceived behavioral control on the second step of a hierarchical regression analysis improved prediction significantly, raising the multiple correlation with goal attainment from 0. 25 to 0. 44. Perhaps the most interesting results, however, emerged in the study on getting an Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ in a course. The questionnaire assessing the different constructs of the theory of planned behavior was administered twice, once at the beginning of the semester and again toward the end. Perception of control over getting an Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ should, of course, become more accurate as the end of the semester approaches. As an addition to intentions, the later measure of perceived behavioral control should therefore contribute to the prediction of course grades more than the earlier measure. The data presented in the last two rows of Table 6. 8 lend support to this hypothesis. Although both measures, intentions and perceived control, gained in predictive accuracy, the more dramatic gain was observed with respect to the latter. Moreover, hierarchical regression analysis showed that whereas with the data obtained early in the semester, only intentions had a significant effect on behavior, with the later data, both ntentions and perceived behavioral control had significant regression coefficients. Thus, the addition of perceived behavioral control had no effect on the accuracy of behavioral prediction for the data obtained early in the semester, but it raised the correlation significantly from 0. 39 to 0. 45 for the data obtained toward the end of the semester. 4 FROM INTENTIONS TO ACTIONS 19 Before con cluding this discussion it may be instructive to take a closer look at the way in which the examination of control beliefs can aid our understanding of the factors that determine behavioral performance. We shall use academic achievement as an example. This analysis parallels our earlier discussion of behavioral and normative beliefs as determinants of a mother*s choice to breast-feed or bottle-feed her baby. In a pilot study conducted prior to the main experiment, Ajzen and Madden (1986) asked college students to list any factors that could help them get an Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ in a course and any factors that might make it difficult for them to get an Ã¢â¬Å"A. Four potential facilitating factors mentioned frequently were stimulating subject matter, clear and organized lectures, possession of required skills and background, and availability of help from the instructor. Four frequently mentioned factors whose presence would hamper attaining a good grade were taking other demanding classes, extracurricular activities, arduous text and reading materials, and difficult exams and course requirements. In the second wave of the main experiment, toward the end of the semester, college students were asked to judge, with respect to each of these eight factors, how much the factor was likely to influence their ability to get an Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ in a particular course they were taking at the time. Table 6. 9 shows the average control beliefs scored in the direction of facilitation (x = factor hinders attaining a good grade, 7 = factor facilitates attaining a good grade) as well as the correlation of each belief with the intention to get an Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ and with actual grades attained. Inspection of the mean control beliefs reveals that the students who took art in the experiment thought they would be helped by the subject matter of the course which was stimulating enough to motivate them, by the lectures which they considered to be sufficiently clear and organized, by their possessing the required skills and background, and by the ready availability of help from the instructor. On the other hand, the students also believed that they would encounter certain obstacles, especially in the form of demands on their time and energy imposed by other classes they were taking and in the form of extracurricular activities. The correlations displayed in Table 6. demonstrate the impact of these different control beliefs on intentions to make an effort to get an Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ in the course and on actual grades attained. Of special importance were perceptions concerning the course*s subject matter, lecture organization, possession of required skills and background, and the nature of the exams and other course requirements. The more that students saw these factors as facilitating their performance in the course, the stronger were their intentions to try for an Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ and the higher were the grades they actually attained. ATTITUDES, PERSONALITY, AND BEHAVIOR 20 In conclusion, the experiments reviewed above have provided some initial support for the theory of planned behavior. The addition of perceived behavioral control to the variables contained in the original theory of reasoned action was found greatly to improve the prediction of behavioral intentions. This finding indicates that perception of behavioral control, like attitude toward the behavior and subjective norm, can have an important impact on a person*s behavioral motivation. The more that attainment of a behavioral goal is viewed as being under volitional control, the stronger is the person*s intention to try. In addition, perceived behavioral control can also improve the prediction of actual behavior beyond the level obtained on the basis of intentions alone. This is the case, however, only under certain conditions. First, the behavior must at least in part be determined by factors beyond a person*s control. When the behavior is largely under volitional control, intentions alone are found to be sufficient to predict it. Secondly, perceived behavioral control must be fairly realistic, reflecting actual control to a reasonable degree. This condition was apparently met in the study on weight loss, and it was also fulfilled toward the end of the semester in the study on academic performance. Summary and conclusions This chapter discussed a theoretical framework, the theory of planned behavior, that can help us predict and understand the performance of specific action tendencies. We examined some of the factors that influence deliberate performance of willful actions as well as additional factors that must be taken into account when we are dealing with behaviors or behavioral go
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Business plan - Coursework Example This project will be funded by the state. The source of that income will therefore, be the government and other partners of the state. The expected income to be generated by this project will be emanating from the various businesses that are included in the Rhossili Town. This includes the revenue from the people visiting the amusement park, revenue from visitors visiting the beach park, income from the fee charged to investors or private firm and the fee charged on the airline users (Laurence, 2013). The cash disbursement will be made on various projects. This includes advertisement. Advertisement will be done using the electronic media, the newspaper, the local Wales and English magazines and internet. The construction of the phase one development of the Central Square in town will cost approximately 10 million dollars. The revitalization of the Town Airport will cost approximately 50 million dollars. The development of the phase one of the Amusement Theme Park will cost 15 million dollars. The Redesigning of the existing Beach Park will cost 5 million dollars. The setting up of the dual transport system will cost 250 million dollars (Laurence, 2013). ... ement Park Development 5 5 5 0 0 Redesigning Existing Beach 5 0 0 0 0 Dual Transport System 50 50 50 50 50 Advertisement 2 2 1 1 1 Airport Maintenance Charges 3 3 2 2 1 Wages 6 6 7 6 6 Total Outgoings 86 81 70 59 58 Monthly Net Cash flow S/D 16.2 -4.3 -4.6 -4 -2 Closing Bank Balance 16.2 11.9 7.3 3.3 1.3 Projected Profit and Loss Statement This forecast measure the performance of a business in a given period of time. The forecast shows the amount of money that is expected as revenue for a period of time, for instance one year or month. It also shows the amount of money that is expected as expenditure for the given period of time. The difference between the two amounts is either profit or loss depending on the amount that is bigger. If the revenue exceeds the expenses, the resulting amount is profit. If expenses are higher that revenue, the resulting amount is a loss. This forecast summarizes the business or projects transactions in a given time frame, usually one year (Ward, 2013). P ROJECTED PROFIT AND LOSS In Millions 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Years Projected Revenue Revenue Beach services 5 5 6 8 10 Fee on private investors 20 20 20 20 20 Fee on the malls 25 25 30 30 30 Charges on airline users 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 Revenue from park services 25 25 25 25 25 Revenue from rental shops 10 15 20 18 22 Revenue from transport services 8 8 6 8 7.5 Ending Cash and other revenue 20 21.5 26.6 45 65 Total Revenue 113.2 119.7 133.8 154.2 179.7 Projected Expenses Direct Costs Central Square Development 5 5 0 0 0 Airport Revitalization 10 10 5 0 0 Amusement Park Development 5 5 5 0 0 Redesigning Existing Beach 5 0 0 0 0 Dual Transport System 50 50 50 50 50 Advertisement 2 2 1 1 1 Airport Maintenance Charges 3 3 2 2 1 Wages 6 6 7 6 6 General and Administration 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Instrumentation in Human Bioscience - Essay Example A discussion of the methods reveals that all have their advantages as well as their disadvantages. The Skinfold Caliper is the most widely used method to determine the amount of body fat. It uses a set of mechanical calipers to measure skinfold thickness at key points on the body. The measurements are then referenced to a chart, which infers the percent of body fat. Though the tools are simple, inexpensive, and relatively non-invasive, the procedure requires a high degree of training to obtain reliable results. The typical accuracy of a correctly administered Skinfold measurement is plus or minus 3 percent (Doyle 1998). This is a marked increase over the universal Body Mass Index (BMI), which compares height to weight and results in an accuracy of 5 to 6 percent. (FitnessGram 2003). A more recent addition to the available methods is the use of the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyser (BIA). This instrument operates on the principle that fat retains less water than muscle. The increased percentage of water in muscle makes it a better electrical conductor and by measuring a body's resistance to current flow, we can measure the body's fat content. This non-invasive technique is well suited for a wide range of subjects including elderly and disabled. The measurement is fast, easy to use, and is able to be used with a minimum of training due to a direct electronic readout. The cost is comparable to the Skinfold calipers and the accuracy obtained is similar to the Skinfold method. However, to attain this accuracy care must be taken to void the subject of alcohol, urine and other liquids for up to 48 hours prior to administering the test (Doyle 1998). These variables all have the potential to impact the accuracy negatively. A more recent method to measure body fat is Dual Energy X-ray Absorpitometry (DEXA). DEXA is a low-level x-ray that measures not only muscle and fat, but also uses bone mineral content as a factor in body composition (Doyle 1998). The technique uses a safe level of x-ray radiation, is non-invasive, and the subject requires no preparation. Though DEXA is costly and requires a high degree of training, it's accuracy exceeds both the Skinfold and BIA methods (Doyle 1998). In measuring the potential for good or diseased health one must also consider and analyse the expired air of the subject. Through measurement of the CO2 and O2 components of expired air, calculations can indicate a healthy metabolic function or detect areas of concern with respect to the subject's overall fitness and health (Jacobs, Mintz, and Nash 1999). The method of assessment most commonly used is known as Indirect Calorimetry (Measuring Energy Expenditure). The method involves the collection of expired air over a given time period and the subsequent analysis of the CO2 and O2 components. The method has some variations in the collection apparatus as well as the means used to analyse the gases. The Douglas Bag is a direct method used to collect expired air. It is considered to be clumsy, due to it's 200-litre bag size, and interferes with the subject's activity while under test. Air is sampled for approximately 10 minutes and then the gas is measured in a dry gas analyser (Messer, Pelto, and Pelto 1989). A less bulky apparatus used to collect expired air is the K.M Respirometer. Smaller and more portable than the Douglas bag, it has gained popularity and is a more widely used method. The technique of
Monday, November 18, 2019
To What Extent Are Organizations Socially Constructed Phenomena - Coursework Example The present paper has identified that after studying the patterns of cultural evolution, the writer of this paper is inclined towards the belief that there is a significant amount of similarity in the manner in which culture is manifested in business organizations and in society in general (Rollinson et al, 1998; Morgan, 1998). To understand cultural diversity in organizations, it would be helpful to understand its roots at a sociological level. Cultural diversity in the workplace is a direct result of Ã¢â¬ËmulticulturalismÃ¢â¬â¢ in society. A multicultural society simply denotes a society in which there exist several cultures (Watson, 2000). Culture is defined as, Ã Ã¢â¬Å"A pattern of shared assumptions a group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way you think, perceive, and feel in relation to those problemsÃ¢â¬ (Schei n, 2003). So, multicultural society has in it different groups, which have learned different ways of thinking, perceiving, and tackling problems that exist in the society. Each group taken individually is a society on its own, with its own individual culture. When all these individual societies are brought under one single core society, the culture of such a society becomes the core culture, with the individual cultures as its subcultures (Watson, 2002). A peaceful co-existence of the subcultures depends on the way the core culture is structured and shaped. Culture is a sensitive term even today and it still has the ability to invoke an emotional and nostalgic association with an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s distinctive way of life, and speaks directly to their sense of identity and belonging (Watson, 2002). A general view of cultural differences is that they affect intercultural encounters, usually by leading to misunderstanding or conflict, at both the individual and group levels (Larkey, 1996).
Friday, November 15, 2019
The book The Evolution of management thought In his comprehensive book The Evolution of Management Thought Daniel A Wren writes: Within the practices of the past there are lessons of history for tomorrow in a continuous stream. We occupy but one point in this stream. The purpose .. is to presentÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦the past as a prologue to the future. Broadly it has been classified into : 1.Scientific management theory 2.Administrative management theory 3.Behavioral management theory 4.Management science theory 5.Organizational environment theory I. PRE SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT ERA Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢I. Ever Since Down Of civilization. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢-Administration of mohenjodaro harappa Cities Of ancient aryan in 2000 B.C. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢-Buddha order and the sangha Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢-Organizations of public life in ancient greece. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Organisation of roman catholic church. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Organisation of military force Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢SECOND HALF OF NINETEENTH CENTURY Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Use of management Principles in business. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Robert Owen-1813 :-Development of mgmt Concepts. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Factor which influence the productivity of personnel in plants. Adam Smith (18th century economist) Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Observed that firms manufactured pins in one of two different ways: Craft-style-each worker did all steps. Production-each worker specialized in one step. F.W.TAYLOR AND SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT The systematic study of the relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process for higher efficiency. Defined by Frederick Taylor in the late 1800s Wanted to replace rule of thumb Sought to reduce the time a worker spent on each task by optimizing the way the task was done. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Studied fatigue caused by lighting, heating, and the design of tools and machines. Time and motion studies Breaking up each job action into its components. Finding better ways to perform the action. Reorganizing each job action to be more efficient. ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT THEORY The study of how to create an organizational structure that leads to high efficiency and effectiveness. Rules formal written instructions that specify actions to be taken under different circumstances Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) specific sets of written instructions about how to perform a certain aspect of a task Norms unwritten, informal codes of conduct that prescribe how people should act in particular situations BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT THEORY The study of how managers should behave to motivate employees and encourage them to perform at high levels and be committed to the achievement of organizational goals. Focuses on the way a manager should personally manage to motivate employees. Mary Parker Follett Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Concerned that Taylor ignored the human side of the organization Suggested workers help in analyzing their jobs lf workers have relevant knowledge of the task, then they should control the task. MANAGEMENT SCIENCE THEORY An approach to management that uses rigorous quantitative techniques to maximize the use of organizational resources. Quantitative management utilizes linear programming, modeling, simulation systems and chaos theory. Operations management -techniques used to analyze all aspects of the production system Management Information Systems (MIS) provides information vital for effective decision making. Total Quality Management (TQM) -focuses on analyzing input, conversion, and output activities to increase product quality. ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT THEORY The set of forces and conditions that operate beyond an organizations boundaries but affect a managers ability to acquire and utilize resources Open System A system that takes resources for its external environment and converts them into goods and services that are then sent back to that environment for purchase by customers. There is no one best way to organize The idea that the organizational structures and control systems manager choose depend on-are contingent on-characteristics of the external environment in which the organization operates. What is management? The term management encompasses an array of different functions undertaken to accomplish a task successfully. In the simplest of terms, management is all about getting things done. However, it is the way and the process of how one achieves ones target or goals and it is in this respect that management is considered an art and a science as well. The term management may be recently defined, but it existed at a time when men started learning the art of organizing, strategizing (during wars) and/or simply planning. At the core of it, management was quintessentially considered as an art of managing men and hence the term manage-men-T. Management is like investment. Managers have resources to invest their time, talent and, possibly, human resources. The goal (function) of management is to get the best return on such resources by getting things done efficiently. This doesnt imply being mechanical or narrowly controlling as some writers on management suggest. The managers style is a personal or situational matter and it has evolved over time. With highly skilled and self-motivated knowledge workers, the manager must be very empowering. Where the workforce is less skilled or not very motivated, the manager may need to monitor output more closely. Skilled managers know how flex their style, coach and motivate diverse employees. Getting things done through people is what they do. By saying that management is a function, not a type of person or role, we can better account for self-managed work teams where no one is in charge In a self-managed team, management is a group effort with no one being the designated managerAnd much later, management scholar, Peter Drucker (1993) defined management as Supplying knowledge to find out how existing knowledge can best be applied to produce results is, in effect, what we mean by management. But knowledge is now also being applied systematically and purposefully to determine what new knowledge is needed, whether it is feasible, and what has to be done to make knowledge effective. It is being applied, in other words, to systematic innovation. (Drucker, 1993) Today the importance of management from an organizations point of view has increased multi-fold. It is only through effective management that companies are developing and executing their businesss policies and strategies to maximize their profits and provide with the best of products and services. Management today combines creative, business, organizational, analytical and other skills to produce effective goal-oriented results! Some of the key functions in management includes learning to delegate, planning and organizing, communicating clearly, controlling situations, motivating employees, adapting to change, constantly innovating and thinking of new ideas, building a good team and delivering results which are not just figure -bound but results that also focus on overall growth and development. Management focuses on the entire organization from both a short and a long-term perspective. Management is the managerial process of forming a strategic vision, setting objectives, crafting a strategy and then implementing and executing the strategy. A good management style is a blend of both efficiency and effectiveness. There is no point in acting efficiently if what you are doing will not have the desired effect. Management techniques can be viewed as either bottom-up, top-down, or collaborative processes. Management is an organizational function, like sales, marketing or finance. It doesnt necessarily mean managing people. We can manage ourselves or the material assigned to us at work. If you managed a project very well on your own, it would mean that you did the job in a well-organized, efficient manner, making good use of all resources at your disposal. In India, largely the top down approach is popular. In the top-down approach, the management makes the decisions, which the employees have no choice but to accept. On the other hand, in the bottom-up approach, employees submit proposals to their managers who, in turn, funnel the best ideas further up the organization. However the bottom up approach is not a very popular approach in India as most of the Indian businesses are family run businesses. Management as art scientific principles and theories will be able to implemented in actual managerial situations. Instead, these managers are likely to rely on the social and political environment surrounding the managerial issue, using their own knowledge of a situation, rather than generic rules, to determine a course of action. For example, as a contrast to the example given previously, a manager who has a problem with an employees poor work performance is likely to rely on his or her own experiences and judgment when addressing this issue. Rather than having a standard response to such a problem, this manager is likely to consider a broad range of social and political factors, and is likely to take different actions depending on the context of the problem. Henry Mintzberg is probably the most well-known and prominent advocate of the school of thought that management is an art. Mintzberg is an academic researcher whose work capturing the actual daily tasks of real managers was ground breaking research for its time. Mintzberg, through his observation of actual managers in their daily work, determined that managers did not sit at their desks, thinking, evaluating, and deciding all day long, working for long, uninterrupted time periods. Rather, Mintzberg determined that mangers engaged in very fragmented work, with constant interruptions and rare opportunities to quietly consider managerial issues. Thus, Mintzberg revolutionized thinking about managers at the time that his work was published, challenging the prior notion that managers behaved rationally and methodically. This was in line with the perspective of management as an art, because it indicated that managers did not necessarily have routine behaviors throughout their days, but ins tead used their own social and political skills to solve problems that arose throughout the course of work. Another scholar that promoted the notion of management as an art was David E. Lilienthal, who in 1967 had his series of lectures titled Management: A Humanist Art published. In this set of published lectures, Lilienthal argues that management requires more than a mastery of techniques and skills; instead, it also requires that managers understand individuals and their motivations and help them achieve their goals. Lilienthal believed that combining management and leadership into practice, by not only getting work done but understanding the meaning behind the work, as effective managerial behavior. Thus, he promoted the idea of the manager as a motivator and facilitator of others. This manager as an artist was likely to respond differently to each employee and situation, rather than use a prescribed set of responses dictated by set of known guidelines. Another proponent of the management as art school of thought is Peter Drucker, famed management scholar who is best known for developing ideas related to total quality management. Drucker terms management a liberal art, claiming that it is such because it deals with the fundamentals of knowledge, wisdom, and leadership, but because it is also concerned with practice and application. Drucker argues that the discipline (i.e., the science) of management attempts to create a paradigm for managers, in which facts are established, and exceptions to these facts are ignored as anomalies. He is critical of the assumptions that make up the management paradigm, because these assumptions change over time as society and the business environment change. Thus, management is more of an art, because scientific facts do not remain stable over time. Managing is one of the most important human activities. From the time human beings began forming social organizations to accomplish aims and objectives they could not accomplish as individuals, managing has been Ã essential to ensure the coordination of individual efforts. As society continuously relied on group effort, and as many organized groups have become large, the task of managers has been increasing in importance and complexity. Definition: Management is the art, or science, of achieving goals through people. Since managers also supervise, management can be interpreted to mean literally looking over i.e., making sure people do what they are supposed to do. Managers are, therefore, expected to ensure greater productivity or, using the current jargon, continuous improvement. Management is not easy. It is not an exact science. In fact, it is seen as an art that people master with experience. Managing your businesss most vital assets is too important to leave to chance.People who believe management is an art are likely to believe that there is no specific way to teach or understand management, and that it is a skill borne of personality and ability. Those who believe in management as an art are likely to believe that certain people are more predisposed to be effective managers than are others, and that some people cannot be taught to be effective managers. That is, even with an understanding of management research and an education in management, some people will not be capable of being effective practicing managers. Practicing managers who believe in management as an art are unlikely to believe that scientific principles and theories will be able to implemented in actual managerial situations. Instead, these managers are likely to rely on the social and political environment surrounding the managerial issue, using their own knowledge of a situation, rather than generic rules, to determine a course of action. For example, a manager who has a problem with an employees poor work performance is likely to rely on his or her own experiences and judgment when addressing this issue. Rather than having a standard response to such a problem, this manager is likely to consider a broad range of social and political factors, and is likely to take different actions depending on the context of the problem. The perspective of management as an art assumes to some extent that a manager has a disposition or experiences that guide him or her in managerial decisions and activities. Thus, with this perspective, many managers may be successful without any formal education or training in management. While formal management education may promote management as a science,many development efforts support the notion of management as an art. To cultivate management talent, organizations offer mentoring, overseas experiences, and job rotation. These activities allow managers to gain greater social and political insight and thus rely on their own judgment and abilities to improve their management style. Much of mentoring involves behavior modeling, in which a protÃ ©gÃ © may learn nuances of managerial behavior rather than a set of specific guidelines for managing. Overseas experiences are likely to involve a great deal of manager adaptation, and the general rules by which a manager might operate in one culture are likely to change when managing workers in other countries. Finally, job rotation is a technique that requires a manager to work in a variety of settings. Again, this encourages a manager to be flexible and adaptive, and likely rely more on his or her personal skill in manag ing. Management actually more of art than science. A huge part of Management is leadership, and no matter how many books and courses you take on the subject, if you dont have it in you, then the best you can be is a poor manager. On the flip side, a manager, even with the right innate skills, can make a lot of obvious mistakes if he didnt study well.Ã Management as science Science can be defined as any skill or technique that reflects a precise application of facts or a principle.. In practice, management as a science would indicate that managers use a specific body of information and facts to guide their behaviors, and that management as an art requires only skill and no specific body of knowledge,. Management Science deals with development and application of the concepts and models in case of any issues and solves managerial problems. The models are usually represented mathematically, but sometimes a few other methods such as computer-based, visual or verbal representations are also used. Believers of management being a discipline of science believe that there are ideal managerial practices available for certain situations. A manager who believes in the scientific principles, when encounters a managerial dilemma has got the view that there must be a rational and objective way to determine the correct course of action. It is possible that the manager will adopt the general principles and theories and also by creating and testing hypotheses. For example, when the employees performance is poor then the manager assumes that certain principles will work in most situations and reacts accordingly to the issue. The concept may be something learnt from a business school or through any f ormal means of training that the person might not consider other factors such as the political and social factors involved in the situation. Many early management researchers opined that managers are like scientists. The first theory that served subscribed to the vision of managers as scientists. The scientific management movement was the primary driver of this perspective. Scientific management, by Frederick W. Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, and others tried to discover the one best way to perform jobs. The theory was published in Taylors monographs, Shop Management (1905)] and The Principles of Scientific Management (1911).The main aim was to bring in a theory to evaluate and organize work in order to get the optimum efficiency and effectiveness. The pig iron is the best illustrative of the scientific management theory. The load was split into lots weighing 92 pounds each, known as the pig. On an average 12.5 tons were loaded onto the rail cars by the workers but Taylor believed that it could be increased to 47 or 48 tons per day and as he had believed it completely worked. The following result was achieved by Matching the skill sets of the workers with that of the task that is required to do. Clear instructions are being provided for the workers on how to perform each of the tasks and it was ensured that the the instructions were being followed. Equal division of labour between the workers and the management. The employees were then motivated by providing them with a significantly higher daily wage. It was believed that the shop floor by 200% through the following principle. The theory of scientific management was adopted throughout the world including France, Russia and Japan. McDonalds has been successfully adopt the principles of Scientific Management into its system in the areas of bonus systems, the mutual understandings with the workers and systematic training provided The theory completely created a paradigm shift in the understanding the psychology of workers thus reducing the efficiencies to a very large level. Management, like other sciences has its own principles, laws, generalization which is universal in nature and can be applied to various situations. But management could not be treated in the same way as the other sciences are being treated, the sole reason being that management deals with people and it is very difficult to predict human behaviour accurately. Therefore, it can be said that management falls under the category of Social Sciences. Management has taken a giant leap in this century. Many are of the misconception that the scientific method will provide solutions to all problems but managers must understand that they must contend with the uncertainties that cannot be removed by the scientific endeavour. With the era being an era of science and technology, it is quintessential that we understand their importance. It is inevitable that every business involves some amount of scientific and technological systems. Management is a science as the scientific principles and rules (such as Taylors theory of scientific management and Webers conception of social and economic organization) that have been devised can be applied for improving productivity. Management as technology What is managementWhat is technologyAre these two related somewayIs technology good or bad These are some basic questions that we shall try to answer to understand this concept of management as technology Technology is the scientific methodology and the materials used to achieve certain goal or solve a particular problem. Management is the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. In laymans words, Management is to manage the man, money machine and technology helps in better management In todays world everybody is using technology in some way or the other whether knowingly or inadvertently. Technology is everywhere around us; in our homes, in our offices etc. The role of technology becomes even more important when it comes to the application of various functions of management. Todays business scenario is extremely fast, dynamic and full of uncertainties. Todays managers cannot afford to waste time on getting information ,then analysing it, then concluding results out of that raw information and then executing plans .Thus .here comes technology to his rescue. Technology makes it faster, far more efficient and easy for the managers to get results out of pieces of information and then formulate and execute plans and in turn generate profits for the business. But the question is How does technology do it and what technologies are available? A lot of technologies are available today to help out managers to take fast and effective decisions as well as expand their businesses. With the help of technology various software tools have been designed to manage all types of help desk customer service related tasks. It allows you to centrally record, track, update proactively manage customer service CRM related tasks, issues projects by allowing you to create, customize and automate workflows processes. Technology is designed to create, optimize automate business process based upon the customers requirement. It delivers complete transparency control to manage different workflows approvals for all types business enterprises. Technology allows organizations to proactively manage issues. Technology provides simple, easy to use, customizable web-based business management tools. Ã Technology management can also be defined as the integrated planning, design, optimization, operation and control of technological products processes and services, a better definition would be the management of the use of technology for human advantage. Today technology is used in every section of management whether it is marketing management, production operation management, human resource management, finance management or systems management. Project management is also the important part of technology management. Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives. Ã The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring the preconceived project constraints. Typical constraints are scope, time, and budget. The secondary challenge is to optimize the allocation and integration of inputs necessary to meet the pre-defined objectives. Some tools that are used in the Organizations are :- Online business networking Networking is a marketing method by which business opportunities are created through networks of like-minded business people. Businesses are increasingly using business social networks as a means of growing their circle of business contacts and promoting themselves online. In general these networking tools allow professionals to build up their circle of business partners they trust. By connecting these business partners the networking tools allow individuals to search for certain people within their network. Since businesses are expanding globally, social networks make it easier to keep in touch with other contacts around the world. Specific cross-border e-commerce platforms and business partnering networks now make globalization accessible also for small and medium sized companies. Social networking websites like LinkedIn.com, Facebook.com are some technologies that help businessmen meet each other online and remain in contact from any part of the world. Sharing of ideas and thoughts Blogs and certain websites like Twitter.com etc are some technologies which provide a platform where people can share their thoughts and present their opinions. Database management and data mining Today no longer we need any books etc to maintain data and records because today we have online database management systems which not only record our data but we can also query out information very fast and effectively. Data mining is the process of retrieving useful patterns out of data stored in the data warehouses which helps managers to analyze data and take quick decisions from the patterns. ERP Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is an integrated computer-based system used to manage internal and external resources, including tangible assets, financial resources, materials, and human resources. It is a software architecture whose purpose is to facilitate the flow of information between all business functions inside the boundaries of the organization and manage the connections to outside stakeholders. Built on a centralized database and normally utilizing a common computing platform, ERP systems consolidate all business operations into a uniform and enterprise-wide system environment. In the absence of an ERP system, a large manufacturer may find itself with many software applications that cannot communicate or interface effectively with one another. ERP systems connect the necessary software in order for accurate forecasting to be done. This allows inventory levels to be kept at maximum efficiency and the company to be more profitable. Integration among different functional areas to ensure proper communication, productivity and efficiency Design engineering (how to best make the product) Order tracking, from acceptance through fulfillment etc. Thus, we just now learnt about some technologies that the managers have at their disposal to help them out perform critical managerial functions. So, now we can certainly say that yes management and technology go hand in hand and without technology, management would become too difficult. Modern Management Theories and Practices Management thought has been evolving and redefining itself . There have been three phases of development during the process The Classical Approach, The Human Relations Approach and the contemporary approaches. The classical approach just emphasized the importance of production and administration process within the organization. The Human Relations Approach elucidated the importance of maintain human relations and thus adhering to sound practices in order to achieve the harmony. The contempropry approaches laid importance on the social systems, the decision making process and the application of quantitative methods. These are often grouped together as modern approaches. The classical management approach, developed during the Industrial Revolution, suggested the development of standard methods for doing jobs and the people were trained and they worked like machines. Every person had his own specialized work and he had to do it. This approach accentuated the work element and did not see the workers as human beings but machines. As management became more sophisticated, there was a shift from the era of production or the stress on production to punctuation on human relations. The Hawthrone experiments clearly indicated that apart from the working conditions and the physiological state of the workers, there were other factors influencing the productivity. George L. Mayo postulated these factors as social and psychological in nature. Recent Developments in Management Theory The recent developments in the management theory have been the Systems Approach, Situational or Contingency theory, Chaos theory, and Team Building theory. The Systems Theory: A system is looked at as having inputs (e.g., raw materials, funds, and human resource), processes (e.g., planning, organizing, motivating, and controlling), outputs (products or services) and outcomes (e.g., enhanced quality of life or productivity for customers/clients, productivity). According to this approach, the four aspects of the system is inter connected and this can be used to determine patterns and events. The Situational or Contingency Theory: This theory postulates that all aspects of the situations must be taken into account when managers make a decision. For e.g. if one is leading a military troop, then an autocratic style or a bureaucratic style must probably be adopted, whereas in the case of a medical facility, a more participative and facilitative leadership style will be more suitable. The Chaos Theory: This theory suggests that systems naturally tend to go complex and hence will lead to more volatility and instability. Thus inorder to maintain a balance, it is important to exert more energy. This trend continues until the system splits and falls apart entirely. Manager must be able to effectively scrutinize and take care so that mishaps dont happen. The Team Building approach: This theory postulates that team building is the essence of providing quality circles, best practices, and continuous improvement within the organization. This theory also elucidates that the reduction of levels of hierarchy or flattening of the system will bring in more effectiveness. Consensus management is the essence of the theory that is involving more people at all levels in the process of decision-making. MODERN MANAGEMENT PRACTICES The basis of Modern Management Practices are based on Leadership and Commitment, Business Planning and Risk Management, Control Systems, Performance Management, Accountability Management Leadership and Commitment: Open-door management style, strong management board, good relationship with staff, importance in the area of values and ethics are all the prerequisites of Modern management. The Senior Financial Officer and the staff play a strong leadership role in the organization and participate in all major business decisions. Business Planning and Risk Management Strong linkage exists between business planning and management accountability agreements. This is achieved by setting well defined the corporate strategies and priorities.