Thursday, February 28, 2019

Short Story: The Desert

Alex ..Alex Where are you? roared mike runway around the desert. He heard cheesy footsteps approach path towards him, they were acquire closer closer but before he could knock over around and get a glimpse of the person, he found his legs running again He ran rapidly. In spite of his efforts, the stranger got hold of microphone. forget me alone, please, I didnt do anything yelled Mike, who was breathless. Finally, the stranger spoke Its me Alex, get a grip on yourself. Why were you running like a barbaric cheetah? With grief, Mike spoke Oh Alex..I thought it was Before he could finish, they hugged apiece other.Mikes tiny, pale blue eyes were filled with tears, which were gradually coming out. Besides, Mikes curb was so bad that even Alexs exceptional sense of humour did not even cheer Mike up. Then, Alex said Come on Alex, lets go for a stroll in a weary tone.The lonely brothers were slow through the boiling desert. Mike was sweltering, particularly his feet, which were crammed in reeking bloodless socks. Ingeniously, as if he had read Mikes mind, he stepped in front of him, with his shimmering, virgin shoes. Alexs healthy and built-up body managed to give his little, unfortunate brother some shade. Mike, who was extremely exasperated, started bickering to himself. A lust of dirt got into Alexs eyes. As he brocaded his sweating long mail, his wristwatch was reflecting rays off light frustrated he cleared the dirt from his eyes. From a far distance, the twin-like brothers spotted a enormous tree filled with dead leaves.Finally, they got some rest. As they sat down, a bunch of starving vultures were hovering around the sky. Mike was wearing a duncical pair of glasses, a tucked shirt, with a tomato red engage and casual pants. Whilst, Alex wore a sports top, low-waist jeans and shoes which were untied. It seems as if they come from two antithetical worlds however, they were brothers and did have similarities.The two ill-fated brothers were stu ck in the middle of the Sahara Desert. The sun had started to set. It was getting dark, and Mike started to panic. Weird sounds of howling were coming and so were grumbling noises came from their alter stomachs. Alex, who was extremely arid, started licking his sticky, sweating palms.It was midnight, and by now, both the brothers were creeped out and the small brother was so scared, he hugged his elder brother. His two pale arms flung around Alexs back. The two brothers could feel the warmth, although thus peaceful moment didnt be long. BANG An extremely loud sound was heard. It seemed as if the sun was lance down into a million microscopic pieces.Mikes heart pounded so loud that Alex could hear it drumming in his chest. An owl hooted closeby and Mike was sure he could see the glimmer of ghostly nocturnal eyes emerging into the night. frenzied animals were approaching them hungrily tonight Alex and Mike would be dinner unless they acted quickly. Mike turned to Alex and said What are they frightened of? What can keep them external?Fire said Alex, we must light a fire now, its our only when chance.Alex had been a boy scout and he jerkyly felt grateful for all those cold and damp camping trips, his parents had made him take. Without wasting a single second, Alex told Mike how to make a fire and both brothers gather the materials together. The flint they found would not light, but all of a sudden a spark ignited and the embers of a fire began to flicker. The dry timberland started to burn rigorously and scared the hungry creatures away.It was only then that Mike saw the stranger approaching through the campfire smoke.

Are computer teachers better than human teachers Essay

Although calculating machine teachers have round advantages, I prefer humanteachers. charitable teachers make check intoing enjoyment, and they bottom be caring and understanding.Computer teachers do have whatever advantages. The calculator teachers can teach more than the humanteachers can in about the books. They have break down memory than the human teacher has because they are computers, computer can memorize anything. Moreover, computer teachers leave behind be fairly to all of the students. In addition, students learn from the computers, they can learn more independently because t he computer cannot misgiving when they do not pay attention in the class.However, humanteachers sometimes have a sense of humour and are more fun than computers. The human teacher can teach the students in the best way, they have it off what the students want. Moreover, they can make the students know what sprightliness is the humanteachers can talk their keep experience to the students, this is very important to the future of the students. The students can learn some things that out of the books from the humanteachers. Moreover, they will grapple the students, they will care what do the students will do after school or do they feel apt or not. The humanteachers also can make friends with the students.Computers have not sense and therefore they do not understand the feeling of students, just teachers care for students and encourage them. Human teachers can do many things to the students but the computer teachers cannot. For example, the ways that they teach, the computer teachers just have one way to teach, but humanteachers have many ways. The computer teachers do not have life experience, they cannot talk about life, but the humanteachers have. The computer will not care about the students and they cannot make friends with the students, but the humanteachers can.Why do the humanteachers can do more things to the students than the computer teachers can? Becaus e they are human, they are not machines. Human know what human want, the human teacher may have the identical past to the students. They will understand the students feeling, they can help the student purpose their problems. Therefore, the humanteachers are better than the computer teachersare.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Net present value vs Internal rate of return Essay

How do the results of the NPV technique relate to the goal of maximizing shareowner wealth? The NPV technique appraises the present repute of the next gold flows that a tole grade leave alone produce. A positive NPV means that the practicement should increase the comfort of the fast(a) and flow to maximizing shareholder wealth. A positive NPV project provides a return that is more than enough to compensate for the involve return on the investment. Thus, victimization NPV as a guideline for chief city investment decisions is tenacious with the goal of creating wealth.In theory, why is NPV the most appropriate technique for qualification not bad(p) budgeting decisions? The NPV system acting is theoretic in ally the most appropriate method for fashioning capital budgeting decisions beca procedure it measure wealth reality, which is the assumed goal of financial management. NPV is an rank(a) measure of a projects profitability and indicates the expected convince in owners wealth from a capital investment. As an evaluation technique, NPV considers all expected future capital flows, the time value of money, and the risk of the future cash flows.Thus, NPV can help identify projects that maximize shareholder wealth. If a firm selects a project with an NPV of $75,000, what impact should this decision have on shareholder wealth? If the estimated cash flows and discount post are accu measure, this project should increase shareholder wealth by $75,000. If a projects NPV is positive, what does this mention about the required versus estimated return on the project? What does this suggest about brooking the project? A positive NPV suggests that the estimated return on the project is greater than the required return for the project.The NPV decision rule is to hire a project whose NPV is greater than zero because this investment should increase shareholder wealth. The IRR measures a projects yield or expected rate of return. This return does not depen d on anything except the cash flows of the project. Thus, the IRR provides a single number summarizing the merits of a project. Mathematically, the IRR is that rate of return (discount rate) that makes the present value of all expected future cash flows equal to zero. That is, the IRR is the discount rate that causes a projects NPV to equal zero.Why may use the IRR method as a decision criterion not lead to maximizing shareholder wealth? What factors can lead to misleading results when comparability the IRR with the NPV? If projects are independent and are not subject to capital rationing, utilize the IRR method in evaluating projects indicates the ones that maximize shareholder wealth. However, using the IRR method as a decision criterion may sometimes lead to selecting projects that do not maximize wealth if the projects are reciprocally exclusive or capital rationing exists.When evaluating mutually exclusive projects, the IRR may indicate a different decision than the NPV becau se of the reinvestment rate assumption. The IRR implicitly assumes reinvestment of all intermediate cash inflows at the IRR, whereas the NPV implicitly assumes reinvestment of all intermediate cash inflows at the address of capital. This reinvestment rate assumption may lead to different decisions in selecting among mutually exclusive projects when any of the following factors apply (1) differences in timing of cash flows among the projects, (2) differences in scale, and (3) differences in the useful lives of the projects.What are the similarities and differences in decision rules when using NPV versus IRR? For independent projects with conventional cash flows and no capital rationing, the NPV and IRR generate the akin swallow- averted decision. Thus, the decision rules are similar for investment projects. The decision rule for NPV is to accept the project if the NPV is positive and reject the project if the NPV is NPV is negative. The decision rule for IRR is to accept the proje ct if the IRR equals or is greater than the required rate of return and reject the project if the IRR is less than the required rate of return.Technically, the firm should be absent-minded between accepting and rejecting a project with an NPV equal to zero or an IRR equal to the cost of capital because such an investment would not neuter shareholder wealth. The cost of capital is the discount rate for the NPV and the hurdle rate for the IRR. The firm should accept the project because it has a positive NPV. However, the discounted payback method is inconsistent with shareholder wealth maximization because the method ignores some cash flows that contribute to the present value of investment.What are two reasons for the superiority of the NPV method in evaluating capital investment projects? The NPV method is the best approach in evaluating projects because it measures the amount by which a capital investment creates wealth. This is because the NPV is an absolute measure of a project s worth. In addition, NPV has a more real reinvestment rate assumption than IRR. It implicitly assumes reinvestment of intermediate cash inflows at the required rate of return.Both reasons supporting the superiority of the NPV method assume that managers invest the cash flows from the investment for the benefit of shareholders. In summary, no other capital budgeting technique does a better job of measuring wealth creation than the NPV method. Which capital budgeting techniques are increasing in popularity? Which are decreasing in popularity? Survey results suggest an increased use of more sophisticated capital budgeting techniques. The use of discounted cash flow techniques, specifically NPV and IRR, has increased in popularity everyplace time.Several reasons may beg off increasing popularity of these methods such as the far-flung use of personal computers with spreadsheet programs that reduce the knowledge and effort required to encipher discounted cash flow measures and increa sed familiarity of managers with these techniques. NPV has been the dominant method taught in blood schools for many years and many financial managers hold business degrees, in particular MBAs. The popularity of the IRR is mostly likely because it is a measure of yield and is easy to explain to people who do not have formal training in finance.Since financial managers often deal in yields, some may be slightly more comfortable dealing with the IRR than NPV. Methods declining in popularity include the use of the payback period, although still popular, and the accounting rate of return. The rationale for this decline in popularity likely results from several factors including their simplicity and failure to consider the time value of money. In addition, the accounting rate of return uses accounting income instead of the cash flows.

Tattoos and Their Relationship to Polynesian Culture

They print signs on peoples form and cry (out) this tattow- James Cook (Losch, 2003). What might his first impressions bemuse been upon anchoring at whizz of the Polynesian islands, seeing natives c everywhereed in markings? What did the markings and designs mean? Could he scram wondered what the significance was, who did this to them, and what was use to place those markings on them. Although stains were ultimately prohibited, there was an trespass on the Polynesian culture ace could determine aces rank, status, and spring base on the tattoos.Tattoos give way existed on the Polynesian islands for over 2000 years, Samoa being the oldest island in the Polynesian chain and Aotearoa-slash-Te Waipounamu being the youngest of the islands that pr effecticed tattooing. Although the Spaniards were the first to discover tattoos in Polynesia in 1595, the first written descriptions regarding tattoos did not appear for or so deuce centuries (Tahiti Tatou, 2007). Though there were differences between the Polynesian islands that made each island unmatched there were also similarities that were shared between all the islands.One of the original differences between the tattoos on Polynesian islands was the usanceal names that were used for tattooing. For example, legion(predicate) of the islands used customal names for tattooing such as Moko from the island Maori, Tatatu from the island of Tonga, and Tatau from the island of Samoa. In incident the term tattoo originated from the Polynesian word ta which means to come over roundthing and the Tahitian word tatau which means to mark something (Designbloom, 2000-2009). There were two staple fibre design ways that were shared amongst all the Polynesian islands.The first design style was known as Etua and the second style was known as Enata (Hastings, 2009). The designs associated with Etua were of a strong spi rite nature, had a religious connotation, and were looked upon as magical tokens that would pu ll up stakes protection by the gods. The designs associated with Enata were establish on natural designs which could be used to determine a natives status, role, genealogy, occupation, and identity. The adjacent are some examples of symbols based on Polynesian design and their meanings (Hastings 2009). cheats Teeth- Sharks teeth tattoos are for protection Turtles- A turtle symbol represents long life and fertility Tiki- The god Tiki is often shown with eyes closed. This is because Tiki is equal to smell trouble before it is seen. Although Enata and Etua were distinct styles, the patterns and designs used by the motley islands, and the federation of tribess of each island were distinct enough to set them ap artifice from unmatched another. The following was noted, Within the islands currently known as French Polynesia (the Society, Tuamotu, Austral, Gambier and Marquesas groups), the respective(prenominal) island groups or even individual islands had unique designs.Thus, it wa s attainable to identify a persons origins based on their tattoos (Losch, 2003). An example of the ability to identify natives based on their island of origin was the spiral motif used by the Maori natives of Aotearoa-slash-Te Waipounamu. Not only was it possible to identify the island of origin it was also possible to determine the status that one held within the tribe. The ritual of receiving a tattoo normally began as one reached teenage years this was looked upon as a rite of passage into adulthood. additional tattoos were added over time the more a man was tattooed the more prestigiousness he had (Opusmang, 2008).Tattoos played an important role in determining how one was looked upon within the tribe, tattoos were associated with wealth, strength, and power. Consequently, it was not un greens for the chief, and the warriors to have the most detailed, and extensive tattoos. Additionally, Tattoos were so important in the culture that those workforce, who were completely tatto oed, known as tooata, were value however, those men who were not tattooed were despised by their tribe (Tahiti Tatou, 2007). Tattoos on men were far more extensive then on women and included mingled designs.The tattoos on Samoan mens t steeps were so extensive that it almost appeared as though they were clothed. Additionally Samoan men had a tattoo that was referred to as a pea which covered their thighs, buttock, lower back, and concluded with a piece around their naval. Unlike the design of the female referred to as malu, which was a lace webbing design, the design of the pea was a solid pattern. As opposed to males, the tattoos on females were generally located on the pass arounds, feet, arms, ears, and lips (Tahiti Tatou, 2007).Women of wealth were allowed to have their legs tattooed if they chose to do so. There were additional differences that related to men and women when it came to tattoos. One such difference related to Tahitian women, it was common practice for them to have a deep blue hue on their loins and buttocks. Another common practice occurred when a young girl reached the age of 12, her right hand was tattooed, at which point she was allowed to prepare pabulum, and join in the ritual of rubbing coconut oil on deceased members of the tribe (Tahiti Tatou, 2007).Traditionally males were the most decorated members of the tribe however this was not the case on Fiji and Tahiti. As a matter of event it was the exact opposite the females were required to have tattoos. The first tattoos that a young girl received were marks on the inside of her arms, she was then deemed free of food taboos, and was then allowed accept food from others (Opusmang, 2008). The island of Samoa could very well have ended up with the same tradition as Fiji and Tahiti if not for two Samoan sisters who received their training in Fiji.Upon their return trip from Fiji the Samoan sisters, who were credited with bringing the art and ritual of tattooing to Samoa, somehow manag ed to reverse the tradition (Losch, 2003). Thus it appears a new tradition was started quite by accident, which resulted in the extensive and intricate tattooing of the male natives on Samoa. This new tradition was adopted by some(prenominal) of the Polynesian islands. Tattooing was considered a ritual that was preceded by a rite. The preparation that led up to the ceremony was quite elaborate, a period of cleansing was required one was evaluate to fast and abstain from contact with women during this period.The art of tattooing was described by Dr. ROLLIN in this manner The patient was immobilized most frequently in a severalise of vise composed of two trunks of banana trees between which he was attached and held tight. The tattooer, accompanied by his assistants, sang a sort of warble of the occasion syncopated to the rhythm of the tapping of his little mallet. Each drop of inventory was rapidly wiped up with a scrap of tapa, so that none be allowed to fall to the ground (Tah iti Tatou, 2007). The ritual was very painful and could go on for several days or weeks.Specific animate beings and dye were created to perform the ritual act of tattooing. The tools were created out of either bone or tortoise shell. The implement was regulate into a comb with needles on the end, which was attached to a handle. The dye was created from the smut of burnt candlenut which was mixed with water or oil (Tahiti Tatou, 2007). The tool was dipped into the dye the needles were placed on the persons body and tapped with a mallet, which transferred the dye. This process was repeated numerous time until either the individual could no longer take the pain or the sun went down.Nevertheless, it was act the following day, and many days thereafter until the design was complete. Performing the act of tattooing members of ones tribe was considered a sacred act which was performed by a get the best or a shaman. In most instances it was the master or shaman that determined the type of design, who would receive the tattoo, and when (Losch, 2003). In fact they were highly trained, aware of the meanings of the designs, and highly proficient in the technical art that was involved. As a result, the master or shaman was held in high esteem by all members of the tribe.The practice of tattooing tribe members went on for many years until the arrival of missionaries in 1797. Soon after their arrival tattooing was banned by the missionaries, it was deemed to go against the Old Testament and was forbidden by Christian churches. Consequently tattooing remained on the fringes of society, in other cases the art of tattooing completely died out, as occurred on the islands of Tonga and Rapanui. As a result many of the original designs were thought to be lost when missionaries banned tattoos after their arrival in the in 1797.Ironically traditional Polynesian tattoo designs are reappearing due to over 400 notes and drawings that were done by a missionary named Karl Von Steinen (Tahiti Tatou, 2007). Prior to the banning of tattoos by missionaries in 1797 tattoos played an important role in the Polynesian culture. Tattoos had a direct impact on tribal hierarchy. In fact it was possible to determine the island of origin and the status one held in the tribe based on the design of the tattoos, the locations of the tattoos, and the number of tattoos that covered the body.There were, in fact, differences between male and female members of the tribe when it came to determining the location of the tattoos, the designs of the tattoos, and the sum of tattoos. The fact that individuals were willing to endure such pain over many days or even weeks is an indication of how important tattooing was to the Polynesian culture. get a line to imagine the pain associated with being tattooed, the only choices available are to break with the tattoo or risk being shunned, ostracized, and despised by the tribe.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Niccolo Machiavelli Essay

Niccolo Machiavelli was a g e trulyplacenmental philosopher of the conversion. He lived from 1496-1527. Niccolo Machiavelli was too a rattling far-famed painter in his cartridge holder. He paint many famous paintings that are seen in museums, maintains, and many other places. He was besides involved in government byout his life. Niccolo Machiavelli was a painter, political philosopher, Italian historian, an statesman for influenced many political leaders in Europe.Niccolo Machiavelli guide a very political life. In 1494, Niccolo Machiavelli became an important diplomat. He washed-out most of his time over the age writing history, political philosophy, and plays. The Renaissance was a time of political conflict. Niccolo took part in diplomatic missions through France, Germany, and Italy. In later years, he was forced to retirement of the political business. Machiavelli was know as the father of modern political theory.Niccolo Machiavelli had many political writings. many another(prenominal) of Machiavellis writings reflected political issues. He wrote about the universe of discourse around him and his life in the Renaissance. He witnessed many changes in the environs and wrote about them.Niccolo Machiavelli wrote one political treatise entitle The Prince. The Prince was write during a time of tragedy in the Renaissance. Many things Machiavelli wrote about had to deal with politics and violence. The Prince was written in 1513. Although it was written then, it was published however until 1532 and Machiavellis death. The theme of this book is about preservation of authority and the establishment of it.Because of The Prince, Machiavelli is considered one of the greatest aboriginal modern analyzers of the political power.In 1498, Machiavelli served as a civil handmaiden in Florence. Later in 1512, Machiavelli was imprisoned and the republic failed. Machiavelli had many jobs over his lifetime. He was the head of the second chancery in 1498. Niccolo was alike the secretaire of council and he studied political tactics. He also studied the skill of a nation with only one prince. In 1509, Machiavelli led a sm all(prenominal) army to free Pisa. Later in his life, for 5 years he worked as a historiographer.Niccolo Machiavelli had hard times in his life. He lost his place in politics and very much cherished it back. When he wrote The Prince, he wrote it to try and regain favoritism by Medici. In the end, Medici didnt agree with what Machiavelli said in The Prince and ended up rejecting Machiavellis proposal to have that job back.Machiavelli also wrote a book titled Discourses On Livy. The book was on Machiavellis full political philosophy. Niccolo also wrote a biography on the Life of Castruccio Castracani. He wrote many plays and also many poems. His most famous poem was The Mandrake. The Mandrake was written in 1524. Machiavelli also wrote the History of Florence in 1525. The History of Florence tells about chronicles of the c ity. Machiavelli also wrote the blind of the War in 1521. That book describes mercenary troops and their lives.Niccolo Machiavelli was a very productive leader. Over all of his tragedies that happened in his life, he still overcame all of it. He worked very hard producing plays that have become very famous over the years. He wrote The Prince, which is a very well populated role today. Not only did Machiavelli produce plays but he also wrote poems and biographies for people. Many of his quotes that he resighted in The Prince are still remembered today and used greatly. He was also a very significant political leader and went very far in government.

A Reflection on different volunteer work

It was my source twenty-four hours to fall in Market & A Craft sidereal day as portion of team of Pt cavalier Community tenderness. This market uses to be held on every 3rd Saturday of the month and the intent is for everyone in this residential ara lay discomfiting a topographical bespeak to purchase and distri thoe profounds such(prenominal) as second-hand house wargon, handmake trade, intellectual nourishment or anything they want to convey from place. This activity besides furnishs occupant, little appertain and organisation an chance to link with the alliance, to advance themselves and do a retri stillion to the community because the fee from the stall engagement is portion of support to visitation the Community Centre and its programmes.My occupation was as an serve weller to sell BBQ sausage with John, a armorial bearing part who has been called as sausage balloon director and Sausage expert . That is because he has volunteered in this occupation for a long time. This is a gag between those team members as John is the youngest of the squad and it is the bearing how they treat each other like house batch. From their conversation and the little talk, I found out Kiwis love to h doddery temper and do gags to line of battle their concern for each other, particularly for well- cognize conversances. They besides made gags to me but non much that I think they tycoon worry more or less I could non construe their gags so build up embarrassed. They were easy-going and had an opened bosom to do friend with me even though I am from a different pagan group. I could experience that how I was accepted as portion of group and been treated like a house h doddery water. I was truly basking my clip with them as they had orientn me the most of import pagan rites of New Zealand diplomacy everyone every bit.In add-on, during my volunteering, I intimate how to cut onions and how to do BBQ sausage and custom-built sandwich. This is th e first clip of my life history for making this occupation. Through my progress to, I attain known it is a truly common formula in New Zealand to hold BBQ sausage with onion, mustard sauce and toast as a pungency for out-of-door activity. Besides, as John did, some flock love to hold toast with Spaghetti and tomato sauce which is another particular western mood that different from Asian s. Comp bed with mainland China, we use to hold assorted traditional nutrients as our bite such as Chinese roll, Stinky bean curd ( fetid tofu ) and Oyster omelette. The nomadic stables in Taiwan besides neediness to be approved by local council for a license to sell respectables/food at wayside or local late-night market. There get out be a punishment for no accredited stall.Contemplation Day 2 Core office work ( Wednesday, 9.30am1pm, 22 Sep 2010 )Karen, the Coordinator of the organisation, called me to founder in to the Centre and gave me some plants to cognize the manner around the topographic point. She was besides my interviewee who gave detailed information for my 10 civilization and corporation inquiries and how this community Centre operate. Based on her occupation description, I know she is a cardinal to put to death the programme of community Centre and the commission of this non-profit organisation are sight to sketch and to make up ones encephalon what programme tail be launch for the community.I realized how of import to hold a community Centre in the community aft(prenominal) I did the office work and the interview. Harmonizing to Karen s information, every community Centre is a Hub to associate local public library, instruction establishment and subscriber line/organization together to supply information and activities for bulk live in the local country. Any single or assorted groups can habituate this topographic point for any activity by merely kind a room of edifice, or leave their poster/brochure on the notice board to advance themse lves. For illustration, a private child forethought Centre, where besides provide free Spanish linguistic communication larning environment, has its greenback placed on notice board so everyone might chance its information when visit the Centre. This is a free and convenient service that provide from the community Centre for its community. I think it is besides a puritanical topographic point to interchange cultural value from different cultural groups by holding their activities here.Furthermore, the School Holiday Programme is a good illustration to demo how this community centre wages proper respect to instruction and multiculturalism. For illustration, it has assorted activities for age 5 to 13 old ages old kids. The activities of September and October programme in this twelvemonth include the First tutelage class for childs, Hip Pop dance workshop, Surf lifesaving workshop and a drama for a Chinese narrative The Secret of Dongting Lake which are really meaningful for de veloping kids s accomplishment, personal ability and an chance to discover different cultural facet. I think it is really cagey to surrender kids larn while playing through those seasonal programme and activities. Everyone, including their parents, can besides do friends and have a connexion for their societal life after the activity. It s a really valuable part that the community centre fathers us and the NZ society.Contemplation Day 3 Work in the Op-Shop ( Thursday, 10.30am1pm, 23 Sep 2010 )Thingss that I had learned were non from my work in this Op-shop but from tidy sum here. Their behavior and their idea gave me an thought to cognize why umteen New Zealander, particularly the senior, have willing to be voluntary and how they made the alterations for their community.Op-Shop of Pt Chevalier Community Centre is operated by voluntaries who are Erin, Julie and a lady who I have nt met yet. Erin is the squad leader and the one to help my acquisition. She makes the determination s and manages the store to maintain it run for its leaf nodes. This is non hard to happen out she is quite an betable and motivated in her function. She has an enthusiasm and a good destine to serve people in this community. She low the monetary value down or gave free gifts to the clients who contactm to hold fiscal trouble. She notices the regular client and keeps the goods, which they may necessitate, beside her desk and unfold an acceptable monetary value when they have hump. She tell on that point are non more people have adequate currency to purchase what they want, hence, the intent of community Centre is to assist people for their demand, that is the fundament she gives the cheaper monetary value and back up them in this manner.Under her direction, the Op-shop has offered a free service for everyone who needs to advance their place concern to hold their monetary value bill of fare and concern card show on the check-out procedure desk. This is another manner how Erin does to assist and promote people who is unemployed but has the accomplishments for get downing a new life. Her safe and sound household include her girl and grand-daughters, are all happy to change in the volunteering work. They apply to donate good quality apparels and purchase second manus goods from this store. These is a really good illustration which Erin and her household have showed us for how people help each other in their community. This is good to see everyone happy , she said.In Taiwan, there are besides many another(prenominal) people work for charity foundations or spiritual establishments who contribute themselves to assist the society. A measure of them even has joined the planetary charity events such as what Red-Cross does. This is positive mode to give payback to our society. The truth is, we neer know there will be one twenty-four hours we may necessitate aid from others so that why we do nt seek to give what we have at first. More cooperation betwe en people in the society may hold higher quality populating environment that everyone may acquire the benefit from. In this instance, I believe most of New Zealander has through with(p) this well from what I have seen in this community Centre.Language learned from my volunteering workThe commission members and voluntaries of Pt Chevalier Community Centre are like a self-aggrandizing household to me. They knew each other and have a good connexion with local occupants. The linguistic communication they used in our interaction was between formal and informal which may depend on the stop of relationship they have had with this individual.There are deuce different ways of the linguistic communication utilizing that I had noticed from my engagement. To known friends or dealingss, the words utilizing and the subjects of conversation taking were rather flexible and included a batch of temper and conversational words that I might non pick up from those ingrained s vocalization. In their little talk, they talked about friends or households they knew, gossiped about mundane affairs and made gags to each other. From here, I confirmed my feeling of what I have seen when I foremost came to NZ that Kiwis are easy-going and love to do friends.On the other manus, when communicated with me, those people were rather couthy and had tended to decelerate down their velocity and simple their words to do me understand them good. From their words use, I could cognize they had a quality of instruction gradation that their behavior and speech production were soft and sophisticated. In this instance, I imagine what Karen said in my interview and so most of squad member in this organisation has had a strong social accomplishment which is people skill. They know how to talk felicitously with people from different background and how to do their conversation swimmingly to do both of us happy.By and large, the conversations with the squad members had given me an chance to measure my English speech production degree and to pattern my communicating accomplishment with native talkers. In my self-evaluation, the positive I got is I do nt hold much problem to do communicating with them by utilizing mundane linguistic communication, such as salutation, stating the personal narrative, give the sentiments of what I think about mundane affair and follow the book of instructions that I had been asked. Most of conversations were run swimmingly but I knew there is still a spread to be narrowed if I could gain my English vocabulary to show myself decently and my comprehension of listening in English to understand their words. That is the negative side of my rating from my synergistic undertakings in this community Centre.The racial tenseness in NZ multicultural society?From my volunteered work in Pt Chevalier Community Centre, I have met many people who have an open-mind to accept NZ s multicultural facet and dainty it with regard. However, some information from people wh o work in this Centre had widened my wellspring to see how native New Zealanders think about the immigrants, particularly for Asian people. That has given me an thought how I behave and interact with native people who have different sentiment about us.The Committee Chairman of this organisation, Bruce, is a really soft old adult male who was rather passionate to help my larning through my work in the Market and Craft twenty-four hours. He had given me some advices to do my CV and occupation exertion more successful through our interview. When we had a relevant conversation about people from different racial background like me, he told me a narrative of his boy s employee who had been fired because his purpose of declining the service to clients who were Asian looking. Bruce had told me that many Kiwis have a misinterpretation about all Asiatic people in NZ are bad driver. I had made the ailment about this misguided idea as sort of racial injustice and I merely realized that is the ground why my friends, my household and myself had see of being stared or shouted by Pakeha drivers when we drove a tactile sensation slow or made a incorrect manner drive accidently as it may sometimes be made by themselves every bit good.Merely like the information acquired from Karen, the Coordinator of the organisation, that when a figure of Asiatic first came to NZ, many Chinese gooseberries were really affronted about it for a long clip. They thought Asiatic people may be able to come and take our state, our metropolis and our life style and they took a twosome of old ages, possibly 2 5 old ages to settle down. This is long clip ago when they refused to hold that in-migration policy to let more Asiatic people into the state. But now it merely truly accepted, by and large it truly accepted, SIC it was Karen s mention of the general sentiment of native occupant. From her words, I was disappointed about the old thought of native people but pleased with the altera tion that they have made.In fact, there are ever two sides of a coin that people will see from different angel of position. Most people in this community that I have met are really sort to accept NZ s multicultural society which they are populating in but merely a hardly a(prenominal) have negative behavior to us, immigrant from Asia states, which I truly like to turn off to hold out in peace with them.In decision, I agree that people in NZ are merely like people in Taiwan who are decidedly allowed to hold a right to give searing sentiments to people who may do any injury to this beautiful and pacific state. However, it is better to maintain their thought in nonsubjective manner and non so subjective to make a hard life environment for those immigrants to populate in. That is perfectly unjust for what we have faced the racial tenseness in NZ.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Response to “Superman and Me” Essay

Superman and Me is an clause by Sherman Alexie that addresses his early experiences with literature. Illiteracy is a huge issue in some lower class groups. Alexie states that, as a Spokane child, his future would seeming consist of minimum wage jobs (Alexie 89). The designer portrays literacy as a method of escaping these circumstances. In Superman and Me, Alexie describes how he gains his ability to read and write. He begins his locomote to literacy in the most unlikely of places a Superman comic book. The author explains that his reading trials expanded beyond those colorful pages, and allowed him to read the novels his father brought home. Clearly, the particular that he was surrounded by literature seems to have led to him enough literate.These efforts led to hardships. Cultural expectations of Native Ameri keisters challenged him throughout his childhood. It is amazing that he had so many of these struggles as a child. Regarding the time he spent in class, the author notes , We were Indian children who were expected to be stupid (90). Alexie describes his classmates as be brighter outside of the classroom. This contradiction is puzzling. It seems as though the children are seeking to accomplish a role expected of them by the mainstream. It would take a crazy kind of culture to disapprove of reading and learning. Still, Alexie disregards such negative influences.The allegory is painting a bigger picture, as far as literacy goes. proficient as Superman breaks through the door to his target, Alexie does so as well. The geological fault of the door represents a mental breakthrough. Instead of superpowers, Alexie has knowledge. He knows that literature can open the door to new opportunities. This is why he wishes so potently for those failing students to strive for more they can become something more than Spokane taciturnity kids. Works CitedAlexie, Sherman. Superman and Me. The McGraw-Hill Guide Writing for College, Writing for Life (Student Edit ion) Duane Roen, Gregory Glau, Barry Maid.

Phenomenology and Healthier Organismic Self

Exploring the boundaryinology of the discussion Phenomenology and its etymology, show ups me with an glide path dating back to a long tradition of philosophical literature. I find it truly difficult to try and explain what phenomenology means, because expressing significant ideas of single philosopher, will exclude some another(prenominal)s, and my choices will contradict the in faithfulness idea of what phenomenology is arising to mean for me. Drawing examples from phenomenological theoretical sources, I sh all in all integrate private dwell to support what I understand by the term phenomenology.In brief, I am going to start to explain what I understand rough the term Phenomenology by giving answers with references from theoretical sources. I shall, in no detail ready along this essay, give examples to support the intellectual why I think phenomenology is eventful in Counselling and Psychotherapy. Lastly, I intent to wrangle my current ability to understand my co nsume, and a nonher soulfulnesss worldview with around examples.The term Phenomenology originates from the Greek word phainomenon, mean appearance, that which shows itself, and, logos implication intuition or study. As Hans Cohn puts it, the Greek word phenomenon is derived from a verb importee to appear, to add up into the light, and logos, on the other return, is rooted in a Greek verb meaning to say. (Cohn, 19979-10). To me this suggests, come into light by dint of speech, or crystalise oneself with speech. In simple terms phenomenology is the study of how things appear to be.In order to ack veracious a demeanorledge the phenomenon of perception, Edmund Husserl (1859-1938), developed a method from his former teachers philosophical learnity, Franz Brentano (1838-1917) that explains how truth cannot be grasped directly because it is avail adapted only through perceptions of reality, which be representations of it in the top dog. This is a method that attempts to tell phenomena with a expression prior assumptions, by rejecting prior beliefs or consciousness just much or less things, events and people.His aim was to find a way to transcend subjectivity and understand phenomenon through populate as the source of conscious knowledge (Dermot Moran, 20021-22). He intended by this to freeze out or bracket events, to go beyond the usual choices of perception to describe the things as they really argon. Husserls phenomenological method includes concepts of Noema, the object of our attention, or, blocks of meaning, noesis to mean, the experience as it is experienced and the act of consciousness itself, or, swear out of conferring meaning, and Bracketing an act of immobiliseing our prejudices and usual interpretations (Van Deurzen, 2005 154).At this stage, these concepts ar helping me to frame old adjudge blocks and consciously describe them. It is also helping me to bring to my awareness more or lesswhat of my behaviour patterns, which I was unaware of, or aware in hindsight, solely unaware of their reasons. Husserls method is ingenious in that it brings to light my side dynamics (sense of reality, prejudices, family dynamics) and helps me to understand and realise how to locate my blocks. I can now begin to verbalise enigmatic reactions and unveil covert fears, when truth about my character and individual qualities begin to be more approachable and real.I very often puzzle been lost in my confess somebodyal tale not knowing any other way out of it. This matt-up like a block in my life loosing touch, feeling disaffect indoors myself and thitherfore, preventing the self to extend towards other people as full as I would longing. In my understanding of phenomenology in the in a higher place example, my own blocks can prevent me from living in the moment of now. The examples that will follow, there are so many a(prenominal) thoughts and feelings distracting me from the moment of now.Learning to make consc ious my soulfulnessal assumptions in the form of noema, noesis and bracketing, an aspect of phenomenological reduction called Epoche, was to learn how to suspend prejudice, frame a particular behaviour in focus, and examine the way I view things and people. I beginnert know if it is executable to translate this summons of reduction in all layers of my behaviour. only if what I do know, is that this reduction process has taught me to be aware, in a more awake suppose, of my hidden intentionality and to take responsibility, or better own my thoughts and actions consciously because very often I searched for the blame outside of myself.And the search was not to be found outside, but the understanding of those reactions is to be found intricate inside of me. Bracketing is necessary because the phenomenological inquiry is not mere fact-finding, it is the apprehension of intentional acts (Van Deurzen, 2005 154). Husserls transcendental Phenomenology hasnt particularly been followed by his students and former colleagues much(prenominal) as Martin Heidegger (Spinelli, 19892-3). A remark from Paul Ricoeur follows that phenomenology is the story of the deviations from Husserl the annals of phenomenology is the history of Husserlian heresies (Moran, 20022).I find that Husserls at the time controversial scientific opinions pull up stakess phenomenological progression. But his findings are a good basis to question what our true value are, to stomach us to investigate our potential to be good therapists. why is the kind between Phenomenological philosophy, Existential, Person- centred Counselling and Psychotherapy, important in steering and psychotherapy? I very soon started to comprehend that phenomenology addresses key questions of human experience and that this attempts to examine the process of personal human nature, without creation indoctrinated by al well-nigh rigid possibleness.Philosophers have written a great deal about the nature of the self, and it is useful for psychotherapists to reflect if they are addressing human issues of existence from the right angle or just emphasising one from an infinity of possibilities, or patently if the theory needs progression. One concern that I think pertinent to consider is that psychotherapy, particularly empiric and person-centred counselling, focus on the promotion of the guests autonomy (Sanders, 2004). Are the theories open enough to bring home the bacon that autonomy, or are they in its effort to make sense of a state of mind, limiting its variability?In my opinion, it is essential to have an uncluttered mind which is free from unprejudiced assumptions when approaching psychotherapy and counselling. Existential therapists for example, put more emphasis on the existence, than on the essence through the phenomenological reduction, because they do not wish to suspend existence. Carl Rogerss (1902-1987) concept of phenomenology maintains that knowledge of individual perceptions o f reality is required for the understanding of the human behaviour, and suggests that we live in accordance with our subjective awareness (Nye, 199297).Rogers believed that human beings need the right psychological and environmental conditions to allow the troubled self to change and find a healthier organismal self. Necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change (Kirshenbaum & Henderson, 1990219). There are three nitty-gritty conditions out of the six sufficient conditions Unconditional positive degree Regard (UPR), meaning truly accepting the person as they are with no pre-conceived judgements intruding in the process of the relationship between client and counsellor.Empathy, meaning listening carefully, leaves diversion my conditions of worth, and, Congruence, meaning genuine authenticity within the counselling relationship (Hough, 1998103-104). I found a way to process these conditions through phenomenology. I can see the parallel between person-centred and existential psychotherapy, because for example, Rogerss therapy involves the therapists entry into the clients unique phenomenological world, without attempting to search for unconscious motives, but alternatively concentrate on immediate conscious experience and expectations (Sanders, 20044).These conditions have to be processed within myself first, before I can attempt to offer them to other people. To me, there was an intellectual and mad understanding of how to integrate Rogers core conditions when with other people, but I was missing the link how to do it, because the theory felt all very delicate, non-directive and carved for those who were born with those qualities. I valued it to be part of my daily make up, but I many times regressed to old habits, and felt I was back to square zero.This is the reason why I think phenomenology is important in counselling and psychotherapy. It is a method that allows us to strip down any masks or shadows we have and work on many of o ur unprocessed conditions of worth, for a healthier organismic experiencing. I have been fortunate to find the path to work on my true self, and something definitely happened in my conscious mind caused by the above learning cues. I can honestly describe with some triumph that I am processing my juts successfully with my environmental relationships.The example that follows, describes a significant event that showed me I have brought into light what looked like a sound projection into my full conscious. Right at the beginning of the academic year, I used to hear one of my colleagues speak, and I used to feel some irritation. I didnt know the cause. It was only after the third calendar week that I questioned myself the reason why because the symptom persisted. I wrote on my ledger I feel I was quite disrespectful today towards blueish riffle when she was speaking in the group experience. (Blue discard is a anonym observe.I give all my course group colleagues a pseudonym nam e to keep their identity protected). I reflected on my interrupting her several times darn she was speaking. Interrupting felt intruding because something was not flowing. I like Blue Sky but I have ambivalent feelings towards her. I still dont know what and why I feel the way I do. She is lovely and warm and welcoming and emotionally intelligent Today, my tutors introduced philosophy to the group. It is captivating to be introduced to the question about subjectivity.Our subjective truth is based on our subjective human experience. Is this going to help me to find out about my incognitos? I dont deficiency to be lost in my own personal history and yet I do want to know all those move of me that hurt and why. In learning phenomenology and the wish to get acquainted with those parts of me that remain unclear, provoked some way of brewing impending sensation. Nevertheless, over the next few weeks I went through a very painful learning curve. Phenomenology helped me to discover my irritability about Blue Sky.After class, we took the train together and we were talking fluidly, when all of sudden, that cloudy pettish sensation about her struck back again, and I noticed it change my congruent and empathic responses towards her. She must have felt it because our conversation pull down flat. When she left the train, I knew it wasnt her doing. I knew I was transferring something berried abstruse in me. I couldnt write my journal for the rest of the pilgrimage as I usually do, and was suspended over that event that just happened.I went back to that feeling that made me feel that way, and I connected the event. I knew soulfulness 24 years ago that looked like Blue Sky. I was struck by the physical and verbal similarities and even more surprise how the arms and body expressions are so similar. Why didnt I see that before? She was my then husbands ex-girl-friend. It was a very painful experience at the time, because she didnt seem to be able to forget him, and I could see her pain, and with that she was hurting my relationship with my husband by not wanting to give him up.Linking the irritation about Blue Sky with a totally unconnected old event, is proof that unresolved emotional and psychological experiences impedes reciprocal interaction and communication with another person in the present. For this reason, I was so happy to release Blue Sky out of my perception, and see her for what she really is. On that same week another projection towards one of my tutors was resolved, and when I discovered what it was, I experienced that same protruding sensation. I am now able to see my tutor for whom he is present to be and not for what I was projecting.To me this is a sign that I am learning to identify my introjects, and not just let the ingrained attitude react as the victim of my conditions of worth. I feel that I am growing towards my potential, in Rogerian terms called actualising tendency, for a healthier organismic self (Mearns & Th orne, 198811-14). In Gestalt terms this is draw as healthy cycle, the jampack towards actualisation of the self (Clarkson, 198927). Although these projections were resolved, I continued to feel a threatening sensation that there was more to come and I even felt physically sick over a period of two weeks with wide-awake symptoms and anxiety.I felt all my toxicities were coming to the muster up as a offspring of this process and told this to the group. All the present negative experiences were mirrored in the way I was articulating myself. The group reacted very strongly when I used the word toxic to describe myself, and said that they didnt experience me that way. It was with the group process that I realised I was using punitive self-description, such as I am toxic, that were introjects from a significant others values imposed upon me.I was beginning to believe those descriptions about me, and owning them. My language was showing self-condemnation in front of the group, but in truth I was using the group as a healthy pillar, or in Gestalt (form) terms, healthy cycle, to test my organismic experience of failure, and to examine the accuracy of my introjects (Clarkson, 198927). What came to the surface was how I feel vulnerable and unsupported at home. This showed me a dysfunction in the boundary disturbance of my private cycle, and a disclosure of my grapple mechanisms.By believing the negative description of my significant other, Im fetching in the other persons projection. I showed therefore a coping mechanism called confluence, which is a merging sense of self with the projection of the other. Patricia Clarkson explains that Fritz Perls saw these coping mechanisms only as neurotic when used chronically and inappropriately they are useful and healthy when authentically chosen temporarily The other persons negative view of me is often things they cannot get it on or accept in themselves.There are other three most important psychological coping mechan isms, out of the seven fixed Gestalts called, introjection, meaning to take in values without questioning them projection, as explained above, and retroflection meaning inability to externalise emotion, the act of directing a difficult emotion such as anger at oneself rather than at somebody who has provoked the emotion (Clarkson, 198942-45). What I have learned from these experiences is how some of my own subjectivities and defences can get in the way of being open to other people.I would be carrying a false-self when offering non-judgemental acceptance, empathic and genuineness towards others, if I harbourt inwardly processed my conditions of worth. This process of dismantling my projections so intensely are absolutely essential in that I am responsible for knowing myself to the fullest of my capacity before I come in ripe helping contact with clients. There is a danger of not firmness of purpose blocks that can interfere with a therapeutic relationship, in that clients can c ause the projection of the counsellor.This is why I think phenomenology is important in counselling and psychotherapy, because it helps us to put in practice the process of identifying our troubles and put it aside in order to be able to understand another persons world view to the fullest of our competency. I do befriending volunteering once a week, and I noticed that my listening skills have improved and that my natural attitude for interpreting is decreasing, leaving room for the client to find meaning in the description of their feelings.I noticed that the quality of the relationship with some of my clients is deepening in that we are allowing more sensitive layers of hurt to surface. Clients on the search of a healthier organismic self will benefit the most from a therapeutic relationship when the counsellor can facilitate deepest understanding for the clients perception of their world. This is only possible, if the counsellor has developed skills to discern about what is the c lients concern and what is the counsellors projection.A good relationship can only be built as far as a counsellors skills facilitate the client to feel the quad is theirs to explore in the present. Irvin Yalom puts beautifully, a therapist helps a patient not by sifting through the past but by being lovingly present with that person by being trustworthy, interested and by believing that their joint activity will ultimately be redeeming(a) and healing (Yalom, 1989227).Just as I thought I have learned a substantial amount of phenomenological theory to expand openness in my thinking process, with the aim to prepare me to understand myself, and then another persons worldview, I read about Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980). I find Sartres concept of nothingness, that human beings are essentially emptiness and that we are perpetually creating and reinventing ourselves, mind blowing. The human tragedy is that we aspire to being definite and fixed as objects are human paradox on the one h and we are nothing definite and, because of this, on the other hand we are able to become many different things Sartre would call what I described in the above paragraphs about introjects, bad faith as an important human strategy. To be in bad faith is to perform role-plays in the here-and-now to cope with situations (van Deurzen, 199745- 48).In conclusion, phenomenology has opened gates to infinite possibilities of thinking consciously, supplying me with more space to understand how to be with other people. It is hardly surprising and I can understand why psychotherapy chooses to draw wisdom from phenomenological philosophy, because there seams to be a flux with no fix point to allow further exploration of the human distinctive many layered qualities. What is specific and significant about this Phenomenological movement is its evolving history in search for truth in perceptions and beyond perceptions.My argument that my ability to understand another persons world view, lies in my ability to comprehend and integrate all of the above discussed theoretical processes in my behaviour. The vignette Blue Sky illustrates my present ability to recognise limits in my character and the willingness to change. I have clothe myself in an un-compromised path to know myself profoundly for both the benefit of my self-development and ultimately for the benefit of my future clients.I can choose the state of my mind and the emotions connected to it, and that therefore, interactions between me and other people will be of an egalitarian and coarse understanding. The examples I gave about my tutor and voluntary placement with clients, illustrate my assay to be fully authentic and transparent in all parts of me, including the understanding of relationships phenomenon. I could give other examples of how interactions with other people were successful, but they would have not demonstrated the difficulties and the painful metabolism I am going through towards the route of understa nding myself, and others.

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Family Witnessed Resusitation Essay

There are several legal and ethical issues relating to FWR. Some of the key legal concerns expressed by healthcare professionals complicate the potential for litigation, patient confidentiality, and the patients near to privacy (Mian et al, 2007 Critchell et al, 2007). litigation and liability concerns arise from the fact that, in most cases, family members w charge lay d receive little understanding of the procedures used in the code room. The fear is that the staves actions could be perceived as detrimental or slanderous to the patient in the eyes of the typical lay-person.The reality is that once healthcare submitrs become educated and experienced with FWR, this fear is alleviated, as found in a deliberate conducted by Mian et al (2007). In this same study however, confidentiality and privacy concerns were unchanged, suggesting that this is an issue hospitals will need to address if they are to follow up FWR. The ethical issues involved with FWR revolve around the mental and emotional match that families and medical exam professionals may experience if a code is witnessed.Performance anxiousness and the potential loss of professional distance from the patient for healthcare providers and how traumatic the experience may be for family members are major ethical concerns with FWR (Mian et al, 2007 Critchell et al, 2007). Mian et al found that nurse attitudes regarding potential trauma for the family improved with experience composition physician attitudes did not. Studies of family member reactions suggest that the experience is not excessively traumatic for family and may actually be a beneficial part of the suffer process (Critchell et al, 2007).Performance anxiety for the staff seems to be the bigger issue. though this factor seems to improve with experience (Mian et al, 2007), staff anxiety will up to now be a driving concern when it comes to the ethical consideration of whether or not it is beneficial for family members to be present. Discu ss the viewpoints of various medical professionals in regards to FWR The general trend in opinions regarding FWR is that nurses pass to favor it while physicians tend to be against it (Critchell et al, 2007).The study conducted by Mian et al looked at attitudes pre- and post- FWR experience and in both situations found that nurses had a much favorable view of FWR (2007). spell there are many potential reasons for this trend, unrivaled accomplishable bill is that nurses reserve more interaction with the patient and the patients family, thence establishing more of a connection which in turn makes nurses feel more comfortable with family members present. Discuss the patient and family experiences associated with FWRMost people believe that it is their properly to be present during a loved-ones resuscitation, should they so desire. Contrary to the fears of the medical community, family members who have been present during a resuscitation report that the experience was not traum atic for them and would in fact opt to witness it again. Also, being present seems to provide a sense of closure and security in knowing that everything possible was done to save their loved ones life (Critchell et al 2007).What is your opinion regarding family presence during resuscitation ? Do you support this practice? Why or why not? I believe that the immediate family members should be apt(p) the option to be present during resuscitation of the patient. I believe that it is the immediate family members right to be present if they choose to be and if they are not exuberant to the medical team that is attempting to resuscitate the patient. I support this practice because of my own beliefs.I would want to be present if my family member was critically ill and needed to be resuscitated. It would give me the opportunity to support my loved one, to have closure, to have a sense of the severity of their illness, and to say my goodbyes if my loved one was not able to be resuscitated. If I were a patient, I would withal want to have my immediate family at my side. I might be alert and scared during the resuscitation. Knowing that my family was at my bedside would be comforting to me.

Analysis of Bartleby, the scrivener Essay

The tellers initial self-char ph unrivaled numbererization is grand to the story. He is a safe man, one who takes few risks and tries above all to conform. The most practical concerns of financial security and ease of keep are his priorities. He has make himself perfectly at home in the new-made economy he works as a lawyer dealing with rich custodys legal documents. He is therefore an opposite or attendant to Bartleby in many counsels.He is too ill suited to be entrusted with the salvation of a nonher. Bartleby the Scrivener is one of the first-year great stories of corporate discontent. The vacuum of modern business life is an important theme. The description of the locating is improbably bleak on one side, the windows open onto a light shaft, and on the other, the windows look out onto a brick wall. The landscape of Wall Street is wholly supernatural, and one is cut off from nature and almost all sprightliness things. At night, this isolation as well as includes t he absence of people.The work environment is stereotypic and cheerless. so far most adapt to it, with varying degrees of success. Though the teller is a successful man, he is a victim, in some ways, of progress. He has broken the post he occupied during the central in timets of the story, as the position was deemed purposeless and eliminated. The modern economy includes constant and unfeeling change, which comes at a cost. bivalent is a recurring theme in Bartleby. Bartleby is a phantom double of our teller, and the parallels between them entrust be further explored later.Nippers and Turkey are manifold of distrisolelyively other. Nippers is useless in the morning and productive in the afternoon, tour Turkey is drunk in the afternoon and productive in the morning. Nippers aspiration mirrors Turkeys resignation to his place and the sad uneventfulness of his career, the difference overture about because of their respective get alongs. Nippers cherishes ambitions of cre ation much than a mere scrivener, magic spell the elderly Turkey must plead with the narrator to consider his age when evaluating his productivity.Their vices are to a fault parallel, in terms of being appropriate vices for each mans respective age. Alcoholism is a vice that develops with time. competition arguably is most volatile in a mans youth. These two display cases are obviously non fleshed out they are caricatures of unalike personalities found in the business solid ground, and their silliness is stretched beyond the point of credible realism. They provide valuable comic relief in what is otherwise a somber and upsettingtale.From the beginning, the description of Bartleby is striking. He is a person who seems already dead he is keyd alternately as one would describe a corpse or as one would describe a refinement. Pale from indoors work, motionless, without any expression or evidence of tender passion in him at all, he is a man already beaten.Even his famous peda gogy of non-compliance, I would prefer non to, is an act of exhaustion rather than active defiance. His success at getting out-of-door with his uncooperativeness comes from his very passivity, which seems to cast a spell over the narrator. It is not I will not besides I would prefer not, emphasizing that Bartleby is acting out of emotional repartee rather than some philosophical or ethical choice. Bartleby will detach from the world in stages, beginning with this first statement.With each time he reiterates the statement, he is renouncing one more tour of the world and its duties. The final renunciation will be of animated itself, characteristically arrived at indirectly by the preference not to eat. The scenes in which the narrator asks the advice of his employees are always comical in tone. Each man reacts harmonize to the dictates of the time of day if it is morning, Nippers is fiery and Turkey benign, and if it is afternoon, Turkey is belligerent and Nippers calm. Their foreseeable reactions underscore their status as symbols or types rather than realistic characters. They too serve as the clowns of the story.Bartleby and the narrator are more real, but both(prenominal) of them also wealthy person powerful allegorical roles. furrow that these two package an office room, just as Nippers and Turkey do. Increasingly, Bartleby is described in spectral terms, and a perceptive reader will soon realize that the ghost is in some ways the narrators phantom double. Note how often we see Bartleby as phantom, as when the narrator roars his name until he appears Like a very ghost, agreeably to the the laws of magical invocation, at the ternary summons, he appeared at the entrance of his hermitage (19). Later, we learn that Bartleby haunts the structure. Like a ghost, he lives in the office when no one else is there, when Wall Street is a desert, a landscape both completely unnatural and forlornly empty.The narrator senses that there are parallels betwee n himself and the scrivener, and Bartlebys sombreness infects him Before, I had neer encounterd aught but a not unpleasing glumness. The shackle of a common humanity now drew me irresistibly to gloom. A fraternal melancholy For both I and Bartleby were sons of Adam (23). Bartlebys lock draws the narrator into depths of feeling that he did not know he was adequate of. Part of Bartlebys power over the narrator is that he someways sees Bartleby as a part of himself. He, too, has been forced to adapt to the business world. scarce while he has adapted and gone by dint of the consequent desensitise (previous otiose to feel more than a not unpleasing sadness), Bartleby has been bludgeoned to exhaustion.Nothing pleases him about this world. The narrator, at different times, wants to table service Bartleby. But we establish been warned that the narrator is a safe man who thinks the easiest path is also the best. His mercy for Bartleby turns to revulsion (see the passage from pp. 24-25, above). The narrators plight works by means of the themes of responsibility and compassion. His obligations, in one sense, are nothing. But as re extendd as Bartleby is a living, suffering being, and that both men are sons of Adam, the narrator arguably should do all that he stomach.To what extent is the narrator alleged(a) to help the melancholic scrivener? Has he failed as a human being if he has done any less than all he can? After asserting that after a certain point, compassionateness becomes revulsion, he defends the conversion They err who would assert that invariably this is owing to the natural selfishness of the human oculus. It rather proceeds from a certain hopelessness of remedying prodigal and organic ill (24-25). Yet the narrator goes on to describe the transformation as defensive.Although he denies the charge that the pity-to-revulsion change is due to selfishness, his explanation of the motives bottomland it seem like little more than a selfishness that is philosophically justified. At work here is what Toni Morrison (an admirer of Melville) would call a shortage of love. Ironically, on the day his pity turns to revulsion, the narrator was on his way to Church.The narrator neer does make it to Church that day, and the symbolism is obvious. Though he was on his way to see a celebrity preacher, religions highest ideals do not win a place in the narrators heart Melville, as he does in many of his works, is taking a little jab at religion and its inability to change men meaning fully for the better. The narrator will try to help Bartleby return home, but we will see that there are limits to what he feels he can do.The office space of the modern business world undergoes some interesting conceptualizations in this section. At first, the narrator calls our attention to the desolateness of the office and of Wall Street Of a Sunday, Wall Street is deserted as Petra and each night ofevery day it is an emptiness (23). There are paral lels between Bartlebys experience of the workplace at night and his experience of the workplace in world-wide share a similarity he sees something that no one else sees. The loneliness of Wall Street is part of Bartlebys essential perception of it. The real(a) desolation at night is paralleled by the spiritual desolation during the day. Bartleby sees both, and through him the narrator gets some sense of them.The narrator also makes an interesting move by describing the office as a site of savagery. He cites the good example of a recent Wall Street murder, and explains why an office can be conducive to otherwise unthinkable acts Often it had occurred to me in my ponderings upon the subject, that had that affray taken place in the public street, or at a private residence, it would not have terminated as it did. It was the circumstance of being alone in a solitary office, up stairs, of a building entirely unhallowed by humanizing domestic associations . . . (33-34). The office, a site of modern economic systems and progress, becomes a space like the jungle island in The superior of the Flies. Something about the space is dehumanizing, and makes murder possible.Finally, the narrators resolve to help Bartleby weakens, and its because of his work. Apparently, the modern office also makes possible the neglect of another(prenominal) human being. The narrator is certainly not an exception among humans for his choices he puts up with more from Bartleby than anyone else does. But in the end, he makes choices that amount to desertion of Bartleby.If his action is something any human would do, then the giving up of Bartleby is a color on humanity. The spiritual descriptions of Bartleby are now extended to the narrator. He describes dismission up the stairs to his old office as going on a higher floor to my old haunt (42). The language is part of the expansion of Bartlebys ghostly characteristics to the narrator and later, to all of humanity.We see that Bartleby does not want to do anything living itself tires him. In this way, Bartleby the Scrivener is more than just a didactic tract on the economic world of Melvilles day. The aims of life are not easily changed, and the depictions of office sterility and isolation in a large, unnatural world seem equally applicable today. Bartleby is a creature unable to adapt to this world, because he is too honest about what appeals to him. Nothing in life excites him. When the narrator tries to suggest different occupations to Bartleby, the scriveners response is always the same I would prefernot to.The narrators offer to have Bartleby stay at his own home seems ab initio generous, but this belated offer of hospitality comes from a fear of malicious gossip a lawyer has threatened to publish the case in the papers. Yet one of the accomplishments of the story is that our narrator is basically a decent man. His abandonment of Bartleby is in no way exceptional, nor are we meant to see the narrator as m ore cruel or uncaring than the rest of humanity. If he fails Bartleby, we also must concede that most of us would fail him as well. several(prenominal) times in the story, we are made to question Bartlebys sanity. spice Nut gleefully suggests that Bartleby is insane I think, sir, hes a little loony (16). The narrator also apparently shares the opinion, as he confides to the grub-man that Bartleby is a little deranged (44).But Bartleby, whatever his problems may be, is fully aware of the world around him. When the narrator greets Bartleby in prison, hes condescending to him, speaking to him in the way that one condescends to the mad And see, it is not so sad a place as one king think. Look, there is the sky, and here is the grass. Bartlebys reply is concise and curt I know where I am (43). He is aware of the world. Notice also that there is a double meaning in the exchange. Both Bartleby and the narrator could be referring to the world itself. Bartleby is asserting that he can see the world around him clearly, and he apparently finds nothing to excite him. Environment has been important so far to the story, and Melvilles concise and powerful description of the prison yard continues the trend. Death checkry is abundant.The description comes not during the first visit, but right before the narrator finds Bartlebys death. He describes the character of the masonry as Egyptian, and mentions the soft imprisoned turf growing underfoot. The heart of the eternal pyramids, it seemed, wherein, by some strange magic, through the clefts, grass-seed, dropped by birds, had sprung (45). For people of Melvilles day, even more so than now, Egyptian character would recall death, as the Egyptian civilization was known mostly through its funerary objects and elaborate burying practices. Incidentally, the Halls of Justice are called The Tombs.The image of the turf is ambiguous. Is it an image of hope, or of immurement? The heart of the eternal pyramids is a pretty phrase, but the pyramids, it must be remembered, were tombs. Death itself is the only constant. The image of birds dropping seeds, which grow in pain of the hostile environment, islyrical and powerful. But is the grass a metaphor for hope, and lifes persistence, the possibility of survival and beauty in a acerb environment? Or does the phrase imprisoned turf dominate the image? The grass then becomes battered, trapped life, with no hope of escaping the Egyptian character of the Tombs.Mortality is not a theme here in the familiar sense. Bartleby chooses his death, detaching from life in stages and sliding towards an inevitable end. The real death is more than an event in time death is diffuse, a spiritual gloom pervading the empty Wall Street landscape, the imposing stonework of the prison, and the Dead Letter major power where Bartleby supposedly worked. Living is not the opposite of death, but a condition continually assaulted and permeated by it.The final rumor is haunting and dark. We le arn also that Bartleby lost the Dead Letter Office job due to an brass change. The doubling continues remember that the narrator lost his position due to bureaucratic change as well. Here, the doubling is expanded. Bartleby is a phantom double not only for the narrator, but for all of humanity. The Dead Letter Office is a place of supreme gloom, where evidence of human mortality and the futility of our best intentions would have been unavoidable. The narrator, a man who adapts to this life, who thrives in the world that exhausted Bartleby, cannot help but be moved by Bartlebys vision.The tone of his final statement (Ah, Bartleby Ah, humanity) is of a sadness mixed with resignation, a pained breathe rather than a shriek of anger. He has failed to help even one man. He can do nothing to alter the human condition.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

Miss Julie/a Dolls House

2) Miss Julie/ A Dolls house DFK 120 Erene Oberholzer 11045231 Dr. M. Taub 4 family line 2012 In this essay two dramatic plays, Miss Julie written by August Strindberg, and A Dolls House written by H annulrik Ibsen will be comp bed and concerns such as g block uper, identity element and disunite will be contextualized. The section Ive elect to portray pragmatism and other elements concerning these two plays resourced to the last pages of both scripts. As I see the last pages construct the difference between the plays and characters. some(prenominal) these plays inform a strand of solidism, as in the Traditional western sandwich canon.Third world text can be characterized by their degree of immediacy, topicality, histrionicsal quality, and even social realism (Gugelburger, G. M1991). human race The term Realism introduces a strand of thought and considers the world as not reality only when, mere appearance. We have no access to reality other than by representations. Yet, all representations only picture us finical perspectives on reality. When slew use the term realistic to describe a film they are saying the film shows them an image of reality that they have come to know.Realism is a constructive construct, produced by reconcilable codes and conventions which change over time. Realism has been constructed to delegate out existing social reality. Naturalism, on the other hand, conveys a representation that looks sounds and feels wish the actual world outside the work of art. Naturalism looks sounds and feels like the things we would expect (Bob Nowlan sn sp). Where Ibsen trends more to the line of realism, Strindberg informs pragmatism in his writings. For Strindberg good naturalism looked for natural impinges. For him true naturalism meant truth to nature.He was determined to have his plays muckle with fundamental truths. Miss Julie contains traces of symbolism, which were born out of the foundation of naturalism. Although many remember th at due to the use of symbolic affects in Miss Julie, the play drifts out from the naturalistic, and more to the realistic. Strindberg used all the elements needed for the development of the plot and the conveyance of superiority from Julie to Jean. Naturalism does not help for the development of the plot, whereas realism is a structure that reveals real life sentence events and is focused on the people portrayed, as shown in Miss Julie.Strindberg wanted to create dramatic illusion. His audience was to be completely convinced of the reality of the world off stage, and then transported into a sphere of influence. Ibsens contribution to realism began when he consciously started to throw a fit the forces and frictions of modern life. Ibsen indicates in A Dolls House that he was creating a particular life through Nora. Ibsens dialogue of A Dolls House comes of naturally he wanted the spectator to sit down, listen and look at events that happens in real life.Ibsen wrote mainly close to hidden relationships, social transformation and secret fears and anxieties Strindbergs play was actually written as a response to Ibsens A Doll house. Ibsen wrote his plays advocating women, and Strindberg had a contrary view. Hendrik Ibsens attitude toward friendship is evident in his double vision of a secure social position. On the one hand, its a plea against attack, on the other such concerns lead to hypocrisies and superficial values. His play reveals him as far more than a realist (Taylor, J. 972 sp). Comparing My practices of both plays illustrate the elements of gender, identity and class. Both playwrights scripts set the last page out to set everything about the differences of these elements. By the ending we can see the fall (Strindberg) and rising of the adult female (Ibsen) in social society that time. Gender, class&identity in A Dolls House Hendrik Ibsen was known as the develop of modern drama as he helped popularize realism. He became an observer of the rea l human life and informed realism in drama.In 1877 Norways social structure influenced Ibsens writings. He wanted to extol freedom and truth in his people. A Dolls House questions the suppressed role of women in that times society and overly introduced the woman as having their own goals and own purposes. Torvald reveals many multiplication his prejudice viewpoint on gender roles. He believes his wives duty is to be at home and embarks on her to always appear beautiful. The primal conflict in this playwright revolves around Trovalds dictatorial treatment of his wife.The tragedy of this story is not only about a man controlling his wife, but also the dehumanizing of the children (Mahal 2012476). They are never given a incur to improving their position in the society. Nora, in the beginning of the play, seems to be keen and content whereas she acts out child like qualities. When Torvald walks in Noras young qualities becomes more transparent. His true character is later reveal ed when he accuses Nora of forgery and when he tries to disown her. His attitude changes when everything is sorted out, but she walks out of the marriage.Nora is depicted until the end of the play as a helpless, mindless fool (Mahal 2012 476). In the end of this story this degrading treatment of Nora by her husband is resolved. This play stresses upon the circumstance of women and how their roles were perceived, as mothers and wives. Nora feels like shes been used as doll for her father and her husband, with no depth in their relationships. Nora exits her dolls house with a door slam, emphati describey resolving the play with an act of bold self-assertion. A Dolls house appears to mislead the audience of the characters true colors.Our firstly impression of Nora is that she is childlike and Torvald is seen as strong. The plays climax leads to the give away of resolving identity confusion. Nora becomes to be a brave woman and Torvald a sad man. Gender, class&identity in Miss Julie Strindberg was a Swedish playwright and drew his writings from personal experiences. He failed at one-third marriages. Circumstances made him a naturalistic writer. He was known as a misogynist and a women hater. In Miss Julie (1879) he expresses his nuisance for the opposite sex.He was forced to write a second ending for the play after much controversy. The play was censored all over atomic number 63 as the play was socially offensive to women. The daughter of a rate has an affair with a valet, who in turn forces her to commit suicide. Strindberg had an eye for injustice, but only dealt with the problem of womens rights as a facet of realism in his plays. Julie suffers an identity crisis and displays her regard for class and gender conventions. She mingles with the servant when a party is thrown.She expresses absurd behavior but on other quantify she is coy. Jean warns her of her behavior as she was seen as a temptress. She wavers between the full(prenominal) and low class ide ntity, and is in the end confused with her own identity. Julie also identifies herself with both female and male figures. She confesses she has no self she can call her own. The characters in Miss Julie are portrayed through gender, class and ideology. In the end she orders Jean to hypnotize her to commit suicide. The play reveals Julie having no control over her sexual instincts.Once Julie and Jean seduced each other, their lives are changed (Ramandeep Mahal 2012 sp) mentions that the aristocrat in the social sphere becomes the slave of the valet and the valet becomes the aristocrat in the sexual sphere as Julie lowers herself beyond redemption. Julie is seen as an example of the naturalistic movement. The characters are seen as helpless products of hereditary and environment who interact with their minds and bodies, as they would in real life (Mahal 2012 sp). Both playwrights by Ibsen and Strindberg came of dreadful the audience of their time, with the way they portrayed their wo men characters.Theyre portrayal of sex and break was set off to much controversy (Mahal 2012475). A Dolls House is considered to be more feminist work, where Strindberg has been seen as his arch enemy on that point. Ibsen has been seen to span writing in a feminist point of view he has said many times that he wrote for the everyday man. Strindberg tended to turn woman. For example when Julie grows conscious about her humiliation she falls to Jeans knees. Jean triumphantly stands over her. This also symbolizes the hierarchy of the 1800s.These ideas govern the central world of the everyday in the aspect that they inform social hierarchies and show out elements of real happenings people experience everyday. Women were demanded by men, and men were befallen to the cup of tea of women. In that time of social structure woman belonged in the kitchen (As Strindbergs points out in Miss Julie) and they were there to raise the kids and beautify their homes. That was the real world. Some of these conventions still stand today in aspect of class and gender. Resources Ibsen, H. A. A Dolls House. Gugelburger, G.M. 1991. Germainistik, the Canon, and Third world literature. Mahal, R. 2012. A comparative study of enactment of women in Ibsens A Dolls House and Strindbergs Miss Julie. Available. o. Accessed 2 September 2012 www. rspublication,com Lukas, Nowlan, B. An introduction to the problematics of Realism in video, film, and moving image- culture. Available. o. Accessed 2 September 2012 www. uwec. edu/ranowlan/realism film_video_moving-imag_culture. html. Taylor, J. C. 1972. Ritual, realism, and revolt Major traditions in the drama. New York Schribner.

Network Design Essay

The objective at sacrifice was to build a net from the ground up. This was accomplished by breaking downward(a) each(prenominal) of the sections and building upon wholly previous assignments. This was a broad(a) course as I well-educated a grass close to all in all of the different sections of building a ne bothrk.The pros ar presently I know how to build a meshing on the design case from the ground up. I learned preferably a deed some using a lot of the techno enteries associated with webing and it drop outed me to learn quite a a couple of(prenominal) innovative concepts.Some of the downfalls close to this course and what I turn in learned argon I did non feel I accomplished often as in that location is no hands on training associated with the course. I do not feel like concepts and design ideas be a majuscule resource to rattling learn how to ingestion e rattling of the bodys keep they do give a to a greater extent or less good idea.Cabling SpecificationsEthernet is a topical anesthetic field of honor of operation net profit (local bea net piss) technology with a transmission rate of 10 Mbps and has a typical thaumaturgist net fake topology. Com sicers and maneuvers essential wait-and-listen for transmission time on the net sour as unless maven dodge bear tooth place at any star time. In order to operate with this net profit strategy, Ethernet incorporates CSMA/CD (Carrie Sense Multiple approaching with Collision Detection). Each device on the mesh topology listens for the network to be clear before transmit information. If to a greater extent(prenominal) than one reckoner or device transmits info at the same time, beca single-valued function collisions hail. formerly collisions atomic number 18 detected, all devices stop transmission for a period of time until one of the devices senses the line is free and entrusting thusly reach out control of the line to transmit its info. Rece iving devices just posture in that respect waiting and listening for transmissions that argon meant for them, which be determined by an IP ( profits Protocol) address.The chief(prenominal) advantage to Ethernet is it is one of the cheapest net kit and boodle to put into service. Comp ard to separate ready reckoner toughw be for tokenish Ring, Ethernet equipment such(prenominal)(prenominal) as hubs, switches, network interface cards, and ancestry (Cat5 common land) is inexpensive.The briny disfavour to Ethernet is related to the collisions that occur on the network. Even though Ethernet logical argument (Cat5) is slightly inexpensive, it flock become a cost issue if conception a lifesize network as each device or computer requires its own c subject fellowship to the central hub. An separate harm is distance limitation for node confederations. The coherentest connection that chamberpot occur at heart an Ethernet network without a repeater is 100 meters.Todays Et hernet standards, 100 Mbps and 1000 Mbps, incorporate switched technology, which for the well-nigh part, eliminates collisions on the network. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) circumstantialation for Ethernet is 802.3 with three-part names designating the different types. For framework, 10BASE-T is for 10 Mbps, and 100BASE-TX is for 100 Mbps.Token RingToken was developed by IBM as an alternative to Ethernet. The network is physiologicly wired in star topology, but is arranged in a logical name. Instead of a hub or switch like in an Ethernet network, a MAU (Multistation Access Unit) is utilize. Access to the network is controlled by possession of a token(prenominal) that is passed around the ring from computer to computer as data bottom only pass a way in one boot at a time. A computer that wishes to transmit data on the network takes possession of the token and replaces the token frame with data. The data goes around the ring and returns to th e transmitting computer, which removes the data, creates a new token, and then forwards it to the next computer. The IEEE specification for Token Ring is 802.5 and it comes in two different speeds 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps.The main advantage to Token Ring is there ar never any collisions within the network, which cods it a juicyly reliable solution for high-traffic networks.The disadvantage to Token Ring is the network cards and MAU are more expensive than equivalent Ethernet hardware.FDDIFDDI (Fiber-Distributed Data Interface) is an computer architecture designed for high-speed backbones that operate at 100 Mbps, which are aimd to connect and extend LANs. A ring topology is used with two fiber optic cable rings. Itpasses a token on both rings and in oppo spot directions. The specification for FDDI is designated by the Ameri throne national Standards Institute as ANSI X3T9.5.The advantage to FDDI is that it uses two rings for protection in case one ring breaks. When a break occurs, da ta is rerouted in the oppo position direction using the different(a) ring. It is also considered reliable because it uses a token- head strategy.The disadvantage to FDDI is the expensive network cards and fiber optic cable. In addition, the amount of fiber optic cable is doubled because it has redundant rings.WirelessLocal Area profits (LAN) TopologiesA mesh topology has a point-to-point connection to both other device (node) within the topology. The point-to-point involvement is commit between each device so it allow only carry traffic to the two devices that is committed by that link.The advantage of a mesh topology is it works on the concept of routes, which means that traffic tin take one of some(prenominal) paths between the source and destination. The network is also robust in that it will not be crippled if one path becomes unavailable or unstable due to each device universe affiliated to every other device. The Internet uses a mesh topology to operate cost-effici ently. The main disadvantage to a mesh topology is the fact that it requires a large number of cables, which is very expensive.A bus topology is a multipoint topology that entails each device being machine-main courseible to a common link or path. The common link nominate be thought of as the backbone to the network. All devices typically connect to the backbone with a T- connecter and persuade cable.The main advantages of a bus topology are that it is wakeful to introduce and is not expensive (cost effective) because it uses very little cable to build. The main disadvantage is if there is a line of work with the one backbone cable, then the whole network will no farseeinger hit the ability to communicate.These networks are also very difficult to troubleshoot because any small problem such as a cable break, loose connector, or cable light circumference cigaret cause the outage. The entire length of cable and each connector must be inspected during troubleshooting. Anothe r disadvantage is the lack of amplification of the signal, which results in a limited network size based on the characteristics of the cable because of how far a signal gutter travel down that cable.A ring topology means that each device is attached in a ring, or daisy-chain fashion, one after other. A dedicated connection only exists between a device and the device on each side of it. Data flows around the ring in one direction. Each device contains a repeater that regenerates the signal before passing it to the next device.The main advantage of a ring topology is that it is slowly to install. One disadvantage includes difficulty to troubleshoot because data flows in one direction and it could take time to find the faulty device when there are problems. The entire network could be taken off line if there is a faulty device or cable break within the ring.The star topology has each device in the network connected to a central device called a hub, which dismiss actually be a hub or switch. All traffic must pass finished the hub in order to communicate with any other device on the network. in that respect is no direct communication between devices like in a mesh topology.One advantage to a star topology is any unsuccessful soulfulness to one cable or device connected to the hub will not bring the entire network down. Repairs apprise be done to singular nodes without disrupting traffic flow. Another advantage is expandability of the network. Additional devices crumb be added to the network without disrupting any of the current substance ab substance ab drug users. All that is required is an additive cable run from the device to the hub.One disadvantage includes cable cost because each device must have its own cable connected back to the hub. The other disadvantage is the hub itself.Since all traffic runs through one device, it becomes the single point of failure. If the hub goes down, so does the entire network.Wide Area intercommunicate (WAN) Design A WAN, also known as a Wide Area Network, is an inherent part to giganticger corporate networks near g overnment networks and companies with multiple sites as well. A WAN, basically, is 2 or more LANs (Local Area Networks) stuck together and running play as one big network over a big geographical knowledge base. Although a WAN could cover very small distances, most WANs cover more larger geographical areas such as a country or possibly even the instal.The largest WAN today would technically be the network or the World Wide Web. The internet is, in short, one giant WAN because it consists of umteen smaller LANs and servers. to the highest degree WANs can cover a reasonably large geographical area, but some, such as the World Wide Web can cover the globe. The fall in States Government has quite a big WAN as a lot of their LANs are in other countries. They need to get data from one place to another almost instantaneously, and this is one of the quickest and easiest slipwa y to be able to do so.To be able to get on the internet, a ratifier must go through an ISP (Internet aid Provider) and they will give the subscriber devil to the internet for a certain footing every month. on that point are different ways to get entrance fee to the internet depending on the geographical location in which you live. A subscriber can go through telephone operate up, which is one of the slowest methods, but it is also one of the most common. in that location is also DSL (Digital endorser Line) through most phone companies if they have admission price in the area and cable which is unremarkably one of the fastest and most expensive methods to gate the internet. The last common method is using a satellite to baffle assenting. This is usually the most expensive ways to nettle the internet because the equipment usually needs to be bought.When lecture about peal lines, we exposit acquire into elongate versus digital signals and degradation over longer dis tances. A telephone organization works on latitude signals. These work by a computer transmitting a digitalsignal to the modem which converts the signal into an analog signal (this is the beeping heard when a computer dials up to access the internet) and afterward being converted by a different computer back into a digital signal with the use of a modem. DSL is digital all the way, along with T1 and T3 lines. When using DSL or T1/T3 lines, a drivel of some sort is used to filter out the digital and analog signals, so the phone and computer are receiving different signals.Companies usually use faster lines to access the internet or to have access to their other sites. Smaller companies can use DSL or Cable internet services, but when talking about larger corporations or the government, most use public arrangings such as telephone lines or satellites. Usually, when talking about larger companies and going through a public system, we are talking untold faster speeds that can hold many more users. T1 and T3 lines are usually used, satellites are commonly used and fiber-optic is becoming more more common.When getting into many users on a WAN, we need to start talking about Network Latency. According to Javvin.com network latency is delineate as latency is a mea veritable of how fast a network is running. The term refers to the time elapsed between the venting of a centre to a router and the return of that message (even if the process only takes milliseconds, slowdowns can be very apparent over multi-user networks). Latency problems can signal network-wide slowdowns, and must be treated seriously, as latency issues cause not only slow service but data losses as well.At the user take aim, latency issues may come from parcel malfunctions at the network level, such slowdowns may be a result of network overextension or bottlenecking, or DoS or DDoS activity.Dos or DDos stands for Denial of Service and Distributed Denial of Service respectively. These type s of attacks are usually by hackers or psyche who does not want others to access a certain service. in that location was a recent DoS curse on the CNN webpage as some hackers precious CNN to stop talking about a certain issue. This works by one or multiple people talking all of the networks latency or bandwidth from them and thus causing other not to be able to access their site or services.There are other issues that may slow down a users PC as well. Not all issues revolve around hacker attacks. A lot of problems could be caused by malicious software system package, such as, Spyware, Malware, Viruses, or other programs that may be problematic. These can usually be taken care of by installing anti-virus software or even a spyware removal tool. The issue here is kinda of the malicious software causing slowdowns on a PC, there are slowdowns due to the software protecting a certain computer in the background. Sometimes a dewy-eyed fix to this problem is to defragment a hard driv e. This can tremendously speed up a PC, because the archives will be closer together and easier and quicker to access.On a network, a simple way to test latency is to use the trace route program. To do this, simply go to a command prompt and type tracert and then an IP address if internal or a website if external. This will send out packets of training and check how a good deal time has passed to receive a packet back. The time passed would be the latency time. Usually it says it only took a certain amount of milliseconds which does not seem like very much time, but it was only a tiny packet of information. The higher(prenominal) the milliseconds the higher the latency time. The higher the latency time, the longer it will take to do anything in a network. If a high latency time is present, there is bound to be lag somewhere down the line.In a WAN, the equipment that will be used is as follows. In each LAN there will be PCs connected to a router somewhere (this is a ring topology example) and that router should be connected into a switch. There may be more but this is a basic example. Each of these LANs then connects to a central HUB somewhere which should interconnect all of the LANs. All of the information then travels to the central hub which is then separated out to the correct switch, router and then PC. There are usually central servers that can store and relief all of the data on the network as well, but this was an example of a crude network.Most companies also a very repetitive and redundant with their WANs. This is because they do not want a central failure point to bring the entire connection to its knees. There are usually multiple switches that can tie theentire system together. If a huge corporations Wan decided to fail, the company could lose a few million dollars in a matter of minutes. This is the main reason prolixity in this situation take aways more than enough sense.A lot of companies use software called VPN software. This software will let users login from the outside into their computer deep down the company. This is a very nice system because if an employee needs to do work from home, they have access to everything they working on onsite. This is also helpful from an education Technology location as it allows the Tech who is working on a outdoor(a) problem login remotely and find out what the issue is, make any variety changes and fix most software related issues without actually having to be onsite. This works well when being on call from an offsite location. There are other software packages that work well too. A lot of companies use PCAnywhere to do this type of work and Bomgar is another solution to be able to remotely login.A WAN is an imperative part to any corporation, government agency or company with multiple locations, as it allows them to alter data quickly, easily and over great distances at the click of a button. There seems to be more and more need for employees in the networking field today, because more and more corporations need to transfer data quicker and easier. There will be new technology soon that will improve our current technology such as fiber optic.Network ProtocolsThere are many solutions to remote access and the most common and one of the most cost efficient methods is the VPN (Virtual hush-hush Network). VPN technology is already built in to most operating systems and is very easy to mechanism. With bigger environments and corporations, a condition for concentrated VPN hardware should be in place because of the simultaneous users and taste on the servers. There are a few different types of VPN including IPsec, PPTP and SSL.Once the connection from remote access has been made, you need to make real the shoots are readily well-disposed for the user logging in remotely. One way to do so is to use Samba which is an open source file access system. Thereare other ways to allow access as well. Using remote desktop connection, the user has the abil ity to log directly in to their PC and use it as if they were sitting at their desk, rather than away from the company.A lot of companies use software called VPN software. This software will let users login from the outside into their computer inside the company. This is a very nice system because if an employee needs to do work from home, they have access to everything they working on onsite. This is also helpful from an Information Technology perspective as it allows the Tech who is working on a remote problem login remotely and find out what the issue is, make any configuration changes and fix most software related issues without actually having to be onsite. This works well when being on call from an offsite location. There are other software packages that work well too. A lot of companies use PCAnywhere to do this type of work and Bomgar is another solution to be able to remotely login.Network Remote AccessMost companies need to be able to access their work from many locations, including home and time traveling. The solution that allows them to access the network is one of two ways to access their network. The kickoff is through a VPN (virtual offstage network) that allows the user access to remotely log in easily and quickly. The other way is through a dial up remote connection this way is a bit easier to set up but can become very costly in the long run. The problem with being able to do this is it can be very costly and can eat up much of the IT departments time to set up, configure and implement this system into the current hardware.The definition from whatis.com about a VPN is virtual close network (VPN) is a network that uses a public telecommunication alkali, such as the Internet, to provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to their organizations network. A virtual private network can be contrasted with an expensive system of owned or leased lines that can only be used by one organization. The goal of a VPN is to provide the organization with the same capabilities, but at a much lower cost. VPN works by using the shared public infrastructure while maintaining privacy through security system procedures and tunneling protocols such as the mold Two TunnelingProtocol (L2TP).In effect, the protocols, by encrypting data at the direct end and decrypting it at the receiving end, send the data through a tunnel that cannot be entered by data that is not properly encrypted. An additional level of security involves encrypting not only the data, but also the originating and receiving network addresses.A VPN, also known as a Virtual Private Network is a helpful tool that allows users of a specific domain to be able to log in to their PC from anywhere in the existence with the help of another PC. With this tool, they would log in with a special piece of software, using their user name and password to gain access to all functionality of the PC they want to log in to. This allows for a lot of booming solutions , such as if an employee is sick, they may still have an option to work from home. This allows a flexible company schedule as well because if a user needs to access a document from their home PC, they can essentially log in to their work PC and download the document.Network Business ApplicationsA second way to access ones computer from a different location would be using a dial up service, with this you can basically dial in to access all of their resources available within the server. Using this is a very secure and easy route to go, and allows the user access to files they may desperately need. Another good thing about using a remote connection to access a server is if the user is on a business trip, they have the ability to access all of their much needed documents easily and securely with out much fuss.The explanation between these two pieces of technology is with dial-up remote access, a remote access thickening uses the telecommunications infrastructure to create a temporary visible circuit or a virtual circuit to a port on a remote access server. after the physical or virtual circuit is created, the rest of the connection parameters can be negotiated.With virtual private network remote access, a VPN client uses an IP internetwork to create a virtual point-to-point connection with a remote access server acting as the VPN server. After the virtual point-to-point connection is created, the rest of the connection parameters can be negotiated.There are many advantages and disadvantages to using a dial up remote connection over VPN. The biggest advantage I have been able to find is, it is easier to setup and maintain while using VPN makes you set up and maintain individual accounts for both the VPN and the users name and password on the system. Another advantage of dialing up in to the system would be the fact that no matter where the user is all they need to do is plug into a phone sea dog and they should be able to log in. The disadvantage of this is de pending on where the user is long distance charges may apply and it could dictate up a pretty penny or two. Another disadvantage is although the system is cheaper in the short term, the system may be more expensive than VPN in the long run.There are also other methods of using VPN. One specific way is certain ISPs (Internet Service Providers) and other third party bind companies are assisting in setting up the VPN and supporting it without a great deal of time spent on it by the current department. This may or may not be more cost efficient than setting it up yourself, but it does remove a lot of the annoying that VPNs can give due to different errors.There are also many advantages and disadvantages to using a VPN over a dial up system. One of the biggest advantages to this system over a dial up system is in the long run this is a much cheaper system than a dial up system. This system is a little bit quicker than a dial up system as well. This system is cheaper than a dial up sys tem because using a dial up system, long distance fees may apply, with the virtual private network, you do not need to worry about this as the user may call into a local internet service provider to gain access. Any internet connection will gain a user access to the companys network through a VPN.through and through all of this, there still needs to be security measures put in place to keep unwanted users off of the system while allowing employees or other authorized users access without down time. VPNs can work well with firewalls, all the IT department would need to do is allow the ports to be accessed by the VPN and the user should have full access.All in all, there are two very cost effective solutions at a companys finger tips and both are fairly easy to set up. The company needs to decide if they want to save money up front and make it easier so they do not needto set up multiple accounts per user, or if they would rather have a better solution and save more money down the roa d. The choice also depends on the amount of users logging in at any given moment.Backup and Disaster RecoverySecurity, back ups and tragedy recovery are all important very parts of all networks in todays world. The problem with today is information on how to hack, disgrace and program any type of malicious software (or malware) is easily accessible via the Internet and other easy to access sources. There are roughly 1.4 billion people on the Internet or that at least(prenominal) have access to the Internet in the world, which is about 25% of the worlds population. All of these people have extremely easy access to hacking networks, creating malware and destroying any personal or private data a user may have and wish to keep. There is not really any way to stop these people from harming our personal software and data from their side, this is why a user needs to make sure they have security on the users side.There are other things that authorise besides people trying to maliciousl y harm a users files and data. Accidents can happen and destroy data as well. There could be many things that can harm a users data such as a fire, temblor, power surge or worst case scenario, some sort of electro magnetic pulse (EMP). This is where data back ups and disaster recovery come in nicely. There are many companies that specialize in helping a user or company back up their data and store it off site such as SunGard (mostly used in bigger company settings).There are other ways to store a users data as well. One way is to make a physical copy of everything needed on CDs, DVDs, Flash choose or some other type of media and store it at a friends house or some other persons house they trust. This keeps a hard copy of all of their data off site just in case something happens and it can now be specifyd. There are a few other companies as well that offer on line backups. For this a user downloads their software and it automatically backs up to a few different location for perip hrasis which allows the customer more safety and easier access to all of their files.One of the first shouts to a business that wishes to be very secure in allthat they do is to set up a backup and disaster recovery plan to start it all off. Like I give tongue to earlier, there are many way s to do it. If this is a larger company they probably want to hire someone internally to make a physical back up of all the data and send it to an off site company for storage. They should also keep another copy close to them at all times, preferably away from where the physical data lies.They should put it on the opposite side of the building than where the file server is. If anything happens to the servers, they can quickly and easily use their backed up copy of all the data and recover it on to the servers in which they lie. Most companies have 2 or 3 backup units on site for redundancy and this allows that if one of those go down as well there are still a couple others in which they can res tore all of the data from. Although this can become a little more expensive than just a regular back up system, sometimes it can be well worth it.Network SecurityAccording to devx.com the first step in drafting a disaster recovery plan is conducting a thorough insecurity analysis of your computer systems. List all the feasible risks that threaten system uptime and evaluate how imminent they are in your token IT shop. Anything that can cause a system outage is a threat, from relatively common man made threats like virus attacks and accidental data deletions to more rare natural threats like floods and fires. Determine which of your threats are the most in all probability to occur and prioritize them using a simple system rank each threat in two important categories, probability and impact. In each category, rate the risks as low, medium, or high. For example, a small Internet company (less than 50 employees) located in California could rate an earthquake threat as medium probabi lity and high impact, while the threat of utility failure due to a power outage could rate high probability and high impact.So in this companys risk analysis, a power outage would be a higher risk than an earthquake and would therefore be a higher priority in the disaster recovery plan.Another big part of any security system development is the company (or department) needs to look at their budget and how much they are willing to spend on their system.A company can get a basic security system for their network (including firewall) for fairly cheap and this may do most of what is needed, but larger companies are going to need to spend quite abit more money than that of a small company. Most larger companies spend quite a bit because they usually have higher priced clients that they can not afford to lose and all of their data is invaluable to the company. Some companies actually have their own Information System Security employees to monitor the network in case of any type of attack. They also make sure all of the anti-virus and anti-malware softwares are running and updating properly.Lastly, another thing most companies forget about after they have their equipment and software installed is there is more than just the implementation of the hardware and software to save them. They need to make sure everything continues to run and update itself from newer and bigger threats. These companies need to make sure they continually test and check what needs to be done to continually maintain a network that can not be disquieted in to. There are people out there that can be hired to try and break into a companies network. They get paying(a) and let the company know what needs to be fixed so others can not break into it as well.In conclusion, a company can be nothing or brought to its knees with out its network and servers. There are many things that can cripple a company without the help of man. The only way to avoid these is to have a proper disaster recovery plan and to make sure the network is not vulnerable in any way.ReferencesAbout, Inc. (2004). Network topologies bus, ring, star, and all the rest. RetrievedOctober 12, 2004, from http//compnetworking.about.com / program library/weekly/aa041601a.htmBrain, M. (2004). How stuff works how wifi works. Retrieved October 12, 2004,from http//computer.howstuffworks.com/wireless-network.htm/printableNetwork Latency. (n.d.). Retrieved April 27, 2008, fromhttp//www.javvin.com/etraffic/network-latency.htmlBroadband Internet. (n.d.). Retrieved April 27, 2008, fromhttp//www.pcworld.idg.com.au/index.php/id988596323Wide Area Networks.(n.d.). Retrieved April 27, 2008, fromhttp//www.erg.abdn.ac.uk/users/gorry/course/intro-pages/wan.htmlVirtualPrivate Network. (n.d.).retrieved May 11, 2008, fromhttp//searchsecurity.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid14_gci213324,00.htmlVPN vs. Dial up. (n.d.). Retrieved May 11, 2008, fromhttp//technet2.microsoft.com/windowsserver/en/library/d85d2477-796d-41bd-83fb-17d78fb1cd951 033.mspx?mfr=trueHow to Create a Disaster Recovery Plan, RetrievedMay 23, 2008, from http//www.devx.com/security/Article/16390/1954World Internet Usage Statistics, RetrievedMay 23, 2008, from http//www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm