Monday, January 28, 2019

Isyu Sa Wikang Filipino Essay

In this current situation of portentous tempestuousness in the Philippines, any discussion of the wording question, like the woman question, is destined to be imcendiary and agonistical. The issue of dustup is al ways explosive, a crux of symptoms afflicting the organic structure politic. It is like a fuse or trigger that ignites a unit of measurement bundle of inflammable issues, s gougedalously questioning the existence of God in front of an audience of believers. Or the immortality of souls among the faithful.Perhaps my saying out responsibility that I am a partisan for a bailiwick language, Filipino, may offend the post tell apartrnists and cosmopolites among youhow can you say such a thing when you argon disquisition in face? Or, as Senator Diokno once said, English of a sort. How withstand I infuriate the loyal speakers of Cebuano, Ilocano, Pampagueno, Ilonggo, Taglish, Filipino English, and a hundred or much languages utilize in these s rase thousand islands. One gives up it cant be helped.Or we can help mouse the ideological smog and draw more lucidly the lines of demarcation in the battleground of ideas and fond practices. One suspects that this is almost unavoidable, in a association where to raise the need for one topic language, say Filipino (as mandated by the Constitution) is certain to arouse immediate opposition. Or, if non immediately, it is deferred and sublimated into former(a) pretexts for disputation and argumentation.Fortunately, we have non reached the point of armed skirmishes and violent confrontations for the sake of our start out/father tongue, as in India and other countries. My partisanship for Filipino ( non Tagalog) is circumscribe to inflame Cebuanos, Bicolanos, Ilocanos, and so on, including Filipino speakers-writers of English, or Filipino English. We probably settle to defuse any brewing conflict quickly by utilise the colonizers tongue, or compromise babel-wise. My view is that alone a continu ing historical analysis can help explain the pay contradictory conjuncture, and disclose the options it gallops us.Only conflict in the current governmental attempts can resolve the linguistic aporia/antinomy and clarify the import and consequence of the rock over the crudewealthal language, over the fate of Filipino and English in our society. _______________ Sa kasalukuyang matinding sigalot sa bansa, anumang talakayan hinggil sa wika ay tiyak na magbubunsod sa isang away o maingay na pagtatalo. Kahawig nito ang usapin ng kababaihan. Laging matinik ang isyu ng pambansang wika, isang sintomas ng pinaglikom na mga sakit ng body politic.Tila ito isang mitsang magpapasabog sa pinakabuod na mga kontradiksiyong bumubuo sa istruktura ng lipunang siyang nakatanghal na larangan ng digmaan ng mga uri at ibat ibang sektor. Lalong masahol siguro kung sabihin kong nasa panig ako ng mga nagsususog sa isang pambansang wikang tinaguriang Filipino. Tiyak na tututol ang mga Sebuano, Ilokano , Ilonggo, mga alagad ng Taglish, o Ingles, o Filipino-Ingles. Ngunit Hindi ito maiiwasan, kaya tuloy na tayong makipagbuno sa usaping ito upang mailinaw ang linya ng paghahatit pamumukod, at sa gayoy makarating sa antas ng pagtutuos at pagpapasiya._______________ One would expect that this issue would have been refractory a long cartridge clip ago. nevertheless, given up the dire condition of the Philippine semi semipolitical economy in this epoch of globalized terrorism of the U. S. hegemon, a betrothal that is the ware of more than a century of compound/neocolonial domination, all the controversies meet this proposal of a theme language since the time of the Philippine democracy when Quezon convened the Institute of National Language under Jaime de Veyra, have risen again like ravenous ghouls.I believe this specter can neer be properly laid to rest until we have acquired genuine reign, until issue self-rule has been fully exercised, and the Filipino mucklethree th ousand everyday, more than a million every yearwill no bimestrial be leaving in droves as Overseas Contract realizeers, the solo nation becoming a global subaltern to the trans guinea pig corporations, to the force field Bank-World Trade Organization, the external M maventary Fund, and the predatory finance slap-up of the global North.If we cannot help exactly be interpellated by the sirens of the global market and change into exchangeable warm bodies, we can at least interrogate the conditions of our controlif just now as a gesture of resi position by a nascent, irrepressible agency. _________________ Saan mang lugar, ang usapin ng pambansang wika ay kumakatawan sa pagtatalo tungkol sa mga mahalagang usapin sa pulitika at ekonomya. neverthelessi naman, Hindoo pa tayo nagpapatayan sa ngalan ng wika, tulad ng nangyayari sa India at iba pang bansa. Marahil, napapahinahon ang bawat isa kung Ingles, ang wika ng dating kolonisador, ang wika ng globalisasyon ngayon, ang atin g gagamitin.Di ko lang tiyak kung maiging magkakaunawaan ang lahat sapagkat ang pagsasalin o translation, kalimitan, ang siyang nagbubunga ng karagdagang basag-gulo. Ngunit ang pagbaling sa Ingles ay pagsuko lamang sa dominasyon ng kapangyarihang global sa ilalim ng kasalukuyang hegemon, ang Estados Unidos. Ang makalulutas ng krisis, sa tingin ko, ay isang pakikisangkot sa nangyayaring labanang pampulitika at pang-ideolohya, laluna ang pakikibaka tungo sa tunay na kasarinlan at demokrasyang popular, sa gitna ng dominasyon ng mga mayayamat makapangyarihang bansa sa Europa, Norte Amerika, Hapon, at iba pa.Bagamat mula pa noong panahon ni Quezon hanggang sa ngayon, ang isyu ng pambansang wika ay naipaloob na sa Konstitusyon, bumangon ito muli na tila mga kaluluwang uhaw sa dugo. Maireresolba lang ang isyung ito kung may tunay na soberanya na tayo, at namamayani ang kapangyarihan ng nakararami, mga pesantet manggagawa, at nabuwag na ang poder ng mga may-aring kakutsaba ng imperyalismo.S a ngayon, walang kalutasan ito, sintomas ng bayang naghihirap, hanggang ang relasyong sosyal ay kontrolado ng naghaharing uri, laluna ng mga komprador at maylupang pabor sa Ingles, wikang may prestihiyo at kinagawiang wika sa pakikipag-ugnay sa kanilang mga patrong Amerikano, Hapon, Intsik at iba pa. _____________________ In the hope of avoiding such a situation, which is almost ineluctable, I would like to offer the following seven theses that may initiate a new burn up to the question, if not offer heuristic points of departure for reflection.In contrast to the ascendant neoliberal philosophically idealist-metaphysical approach, I apply a historical materialist one whose rule is not only historicizing and dialecticalnot merely deploying the Aufhebung of Hegel within an eclectic, neoWeberian framework (as Fernando Zialcita does in his provocative bookAu thenlytic Though not foreign Essays on Filipino Identity (2005) plainly also, as Marx said, rest it on its head in the compl ex and changing kindly dealings of production within concrete historical settings.The materialist dialectic offers a method of analysis and elucidation of the context in which questions about a national language can be clarified and the nuances of its practical implications elaborated. thesis 1 Language is not a self-sufficient entity or phenomenon in itself but a component of the social forms of consciousness of any given social formation. Marx considered language a productive force, conceived as practical consciousness, as he elaborates in the Grundrisse Language itself is just as much the product of a community, as in another aspect it is the existence of the communityit is, as it were, the communal being speaking for itself (quoted in Rossi-Landi 1983, 170).As such, it can only be properly addressed within the historical specificity of a given mode of production and attendant social-political formation. It has no memorial of its own but is a constituent part and constitutive of the ideological terrain on which the struggle of classes and historic blocs are fought, always in an uneven and combined mode of dilatement. It forms part of the conflicted evolution of the integral state, as Gramsci conceived it as the combination of political society and elegant society.The issue of language is located right at the heart of the construction of this integral state. Hence not only its concurrent but also diachronic dimensions should be dialectically comprehended in grasping its worth and contribution to the liberation and fulfillment of the human potential. Thesis 2 The function and nature of language then cannot be adequately discussed in a neutral and positivistic-empiricist way, given its insertion into conflicted relations of production, at least since the emergence of class-divided societies in history.Ferruccio Rossi-Landi explains the imbrication of language in social-historical recitation The typically social operation of speaking can only be perform ed by a historically determined individual or host it must be performed in a given language, that is, within a determined structure which is always itself, to some extent, both an ideological product and an ideological instrument already lastly, the audience is determined as considerably by the historical-social situation (1983, 169). Language use, in short, the process of communication, cannot escape the destiny of sociopolitical overdetermination.In the Philippines, the status and function of various languagesSpanish, English, and the numerous vernaculars or regional languagescannot be assayed without inscribing them in the history of colonial and neocolonial domination of the peoples in these islands. In this regard, the terms national-popular and nation-peopleas Gramsci (1971) employed them in a historical-materialist discourseshould be used in referring to Filipinos in the process of expressing themselves (albeit in a contradiction-filled way) as diverse communities, interpe llating other nationalities, and conducting dialogue with themselves and other conversers.It is necessary to assert the ingrained premise of the national-popular, the nation as constituted by the working mickle (in our country, workers and peasants), not the patricians. Otherwise, the nation (in the archive of Western-oriented or Eurocentric history) is usually set with the elite, the propertied classes, the national bourgeoisie, or the comprador bourgeoisie and its allies, the bureaucrats and feudal landlords and their retinue of gangsters, cloistered armies, paramilitary thugs, etc.Actually, today, we inhabit a neocolony dominated by a comprador-bureaucratic bloc of the propertied classes allied with and supported in manifold ways by the U. S. hegemon and its regional accomplices. The recent unilateral polity pronouncement of the de facto Philippine president Arroyo that English should be re-instated as the official spiritualist of reading in all schools can only be read as a total subservience to the ideology of English as a global language free from all imperialist intent.Obviously this is propagated by free-market ideologues inside and outside government, even though a bill has tardily been proposed in the Congress to institute the mother tongue as the medium of instruction up to grade six of the elementary school. (One needs to hive away here that this idea of using the mother tongue in the eldest years of education is not new it was first planned and well-tried in the Sta. Barbara, Panay, experiment conducted by Dr. Jose V. Aguilar in the late forties and fifties.But this finding has been buried and forgotten by the neocolonialist policies of all administrations since 1946. ) As gumshoe Ives pointed out in his Language and Hegemony in Gramsci, issues of language policy in organizing schools and testing curriculum need to be connected to political questions of democracy, ontogeny inequalities in wealth and neo-imperialism (2004, 164), since t he daily acts of speaking and writingin effect, the fighting(a) field of social communication involves the struggle for hegemony in the realm of civil society, state institutions, and practices of everyday life.____________________ Sa halip na sipatin ang isyung ito sa kinagawiang empirical na lapit, tulad ng ginagamit ng mga postmodernistang iskolar, dapat ipataw ang isang materyalismo- istorikal na pananaw at ang diyalektikong paraan upang makalikha ng praktikang agenda na tutugon sa tanong kung ano ba ang wikang pambansang magsisilbing mabisang sandata sa mapagpalayang pakikipagsapalaran ng sambayanan.Ang wika ay hindi isang bagay na may sariling halaga kundi bahagi ito ng kategorya ng kamalayang sosyal, isang kamalayang praktikapractical consciousness, ayon kay Marxna gumaganap sa buhay bilang lakas ng produksiyon. Matutukoy lamang ito sa gitna ng isang partikular na mode of production sa isang determinadong pormasyonag sosyal. Hindi ito bukod sa pagtatagisang pang-ideolohiya. Kalahok ito sa pagbubuo ng integral state (konseptong galing kay Gramsci), tambalan ng lipunang sibil at lipunang pampulitika.Ang usapin ng wika ay di maihihiwalay sa yugto ng kasaysayan ng bayan, na laging komplikado at di-pantay ang pagsulong ng ibat ibang bahagiuneven and combined development. Samakatwid, sa ating sitwasyon, ang suliraning pang-wika ay di maihihiwalay sa programa tungo sa tunay na kasarinlan at kasaganaan, mula sa kasalukuyang neocolonial at naghihikahos na bayan. ____________________ Thesis 3 The Filipino nation is an unfinished and continuing tolerate, an unfinished work, constantly being re-invented but not under conditions of its own making.Becoming Filipinos is a process of decolonization and ancestor democratization of the social formation, a sequence of collective choices. This is almost a cliche among the progressive forces with a nationalist orientation. It bears repeating that Filipino sovereignty is a dynamic total whose premises are political lice nse and economic self-sufficiency. We have not yet achieved those premises.Given the current conglutination of nation-states in the world-system under U. S. hegemony, whose hegemony is unstable, precarious, sustained by manifold antagonisms, and perpetually challenged by other regional blocs, becoming Filipino is an ever-renewing trajectory of creation and re-creation, a process overdetermined by legacies of the past and unpredictable incidences of the present and the future. Within this configuration, an evolving, rising Filipino language may be conceived as both a medium and substantive element in pathing this sequence of becoming-Filipino, a sequence grasped not as a cultural essence but a network of dynamic political affiliations and commitments.It is also an aesthetic climate of counterhegemonic, anti-imperialist expression. Thesis 4 Only within the project of achieving genuine, substantive national independence and egalitarian democracy can we argue for the need for one n ational language as an effective means of unifying the plurality of peasants, workers and middle strata and allowing them integral participation in a hegemonic process.Note that this is not just a question of cultural identity element within the large agenda of a reformist-individualist politics of identity/recognition. Without changing the unequal and raw stead/power relations, a distinctive Filipino culture incorporating all the diverse elements that have entered everyday lives of the masses can not be specify and allowed to flourish.Without the prosperous development of the material resources and political instrumentalities, a Filipino cultural identity can only be an artificial, hybrid gathering of the elitean excrescence of global consumerism, a symptom of the power of transnationalized commodity-fetishism that, right now, dominates the popular consciousness via the mass media, in particular television, films, music, food and fashion styles, packaged life-styles that per meate the everyday practices of ordinary Filipinos across class, ethnicities, age and localities.The consumerist soma (to use Pierre Bourdieus 1998 concept) acquired from decades of colonial education and indoctrination has almost unaccompanied conquered and occupied the psyche of every Filipino, except for those consciously aware of it and conjointly resisting it. With the rise of globalization, it has been a fashionable if tendentious practice among the floating litterateurs, in the main resident in colleges and universities, to advocate the maintenance of the status quo that is, English as the prestigious language, Taglish as the media lingua franca, and Filipino and the other languages as useful devices for specific tasks.But soon we find that this imitated pluralistic/multiculturalist stand only functions as the effective ploy of neoliberal finance capital. This seemingly pragmatist, accomodationist stance ultimately serves neocolonial goals the Filipino as presumptive world-citizen functioning as payment for the lack of effective national sovereignty. Its obverse is regional/ethnic separatism.The culturalist or civilizationalist program, frequently linked to NGOs and deceptive philanthropic schemes, skips the required dialectical mediation and posits an bunco universality, though disguised in a self-satisfied particularism now in vogue among postcolonial deconstructionists eulogizing the importance of place, locality, indigeneity, organic roots, etc.We discover in time that this trend serves as a useful adjunct for enhancing the festishistic magic, aura and tempting lure of commoditiesfrom brand-name luxury goods to the whole world of images, sounds, theoretical discourses, and multimedia confections make by the transnational culture industry and marketed as symbolic capital for the pettybourgeoisie of the periphery and other subalternized sectors within the metropole.__________________ Sa Pilipinas, ang lagay at papel na ginagampanan ng wik a ay maipapaliwanag lamang sa pagsingit nito sa ugnayang panlipunan, sa kontradiksyon ng sumusulong na puwersa ng produksyon at namamayaning balangkas na pumipigil sa pagsulong ng buong lipunan. Ang katayuan ng wika ay nakabatay sa kasaysayan ng bansa, sa kolonyal at neokolonyal na dominasyon ng Kastila, Amerika at Hapon, at sa himagsik ng sambayanan laban sa pang-aapi.Ang mga katagang nasyonal-popular o pambansa-makamasana iminungkahi ni Gramsciang dapat ilapat sa nakararami na nag-aadhikang makapagpahayag ng kanilang pagkatao sa ibat ibang paraan, tigib ng kontradiksiyon na bunga ng di-pantay at pinagtambal na pagsulong ng ibat ibang sangkap ng kabuuang istruktura ng lipunan. Ang wika ay nakalubog sa daloy ng mga kontradiksiyon sa lipunan. Kailangang idiin ang prinsipyo ng nasyonal-popular, pambansa-makamasa, ang bansa na binubuot pinapatnubayan ng masang walang pag-aarimga manggagawa, magsasaka, at gitnang sangay (mga propesyonal, petiburgesyang uri, mga minorya).Kung hindi, ang bansa ay mabibigyan-kahulugan ng mga naghaharing uri, ang iilan na nag-mamay-ari, ang oligarkong tuta ng imperyalismo, mga ahente ng global finance-capital. Thesis 5 Spanish and English are global languages needed for communication and participation in world affairs. They are recognized as richly developed languages of aesthetic and intellectual power useful for certain purposesEnglish particularly in the scientific and technical fields. But they have a political history and resonance for third world peoples who have suffered from their uses.Its sedimented patterns of thought and action cannot so easily be ignored or elided. The discursive genres of law, business, liturgy, pedagogy, and so on, in English and their institutionalized instrumentalities cannot be judged on their own terms without thought the political role they played, and continue to play, as effective instruments in the colonial domination of the various peoples in the Philippines and their total subordination to the political-cultural hegemony of the Spanish empire, and then of the American empire from 1899 to 1946, and of U. S. neocolonial control after formal independence in 1946.Everyone knows that while Rizal used Spanish to reach an enlightened Spanish everyday and an ilustrado-influenced audience, the masses who participated in the Malolos Republic and the war against the Americans used Tagalog, and other vernaculars, in fighting for cultural autonomy and national independence. Historically the national and participatory project of the Philippine revolutionstill unfinished and continuingprovides the only viable perspective within which we can explore the need for a national language as a means of uniting and mobilizing the people for this project. Thesis 6The use and promotion of a national language does not imply the neglect, elimination, or inferiorization of other regional languages communicate and used by diverse communities involved in the national-democratic struggle. In fact, i t implies their preservation and cultivation. But that is contingent on the attainment of genuine national sovereignty and the emancipation of the masses, their integration into active participation in governance. Their inferiorization is tied to the oppression of their users/speakers by virtue of class, nationality, religion, ethinicity, locality, and so on.(My friends in Panay who use Kinaray-a, Ilonggo or Akenaon should not precaution being dominated by a Manila-centric hegemony as long as they address crucial political questions of social justice and sovereignty in a manner that commands directive force, displacing the question of form with the substantive totality of communication across ethnic and local differences to forge a flexile but principled united front for national democracy and collectivist liberation. ) Meanwhile, in the course of the national-liberation struggle, all languages should and are being used for mobilization, political education, and cultural self-af firmation.Simultaneously, the dissemination and development of one national language becomes a political and economic-cultural necessity for unifying the diverse communities under a common political programwhich does not imply a monolithic ideological unity in front of the monstrous power of finance-capital using English as an instrument of subordination and neocolonial aggression. In this regard, I would argue that the unity and collective pride attendant on the use of one national language provides the groundwork and fundamental requisite for the promotion and development of other ethnic/regional languages within the national polity.This is a psychological-ideological imperative that cannot be deferred. A dialectical approach should be applied to the historically contentious relations between a dominant vernaculat (Tagalog) and its subalternized counterparts (Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, etc. ) in order to transcend historically sedimented prejudices and promote creative dialogue and intertextuality among all the languages spoken in the Philippines.____________________ Ang bansang Pilipinas na may kasarinlan at matipunong industriya ay isang proyektong di pa tapos, nagpapatuloy, laging iniimbento ngunit hindi sa anumang kondisyon. Ang pagiging Filipino ay isang proseso ng dekolonisasyon at demokratisasyong radikal, isang kaganapan na likha ng kolektibong pagpapasya, hindi indibidwal na kagustuhan. Ang proyektong ito ay hinuhubog at niyayari ng maraming lakas, ng minanang ugali at sari-saring idea at institusyon katutubo o hiram. Hindi ito nakatutok sa pagtatamo ng isang esensiya, kundi makikilatis ito bilang isang masalimuot na pagbubuklod ng dinamikong pakikisamang pampulitika at mga komitment.Itoy isa ring estetikong kalakaran sa kontra-gahum na paglikhang makasining. Sa loob lamang ng pangitaing ito, sa proyekto ng pagsisikap makamit ang tunay na pambansang kasarinlan at demokrasyang radikal makatuturang mahihimay ang problema ng pangangailangan ng wikan g pambansa, isang wikang mabisang makapag-iisa sa masa at mga komunidad sa teritoryo ng Pilipinas, at makapagdudulot ng mabisang partisipasyon sa pagbuo ng isang gahum o lideratong moral-intelektwal ng masang manggagawa.Paano mayayari ang mapagpalayang gahum kung walang pagkakaisang kinakatawan ng/kumakatawan sa sariling wika ng komunikasyon at pag-iisip? ______________________ Thesis 7 Hegemony, the moral and intellectual leadership of the Filipino working masses, the scaffold within which an authentic Filipino identity can grow, assumes the rise of organic Filipino intellectuals who will use and develop Filipino as the evolving national language. Again, this does not mean suppressing other regional languages.Nor does it mean prohibiting the use and teaching of English or other international languages (Spanish, French, Chinese, etc. ). It simply means the establishment of a required platform, root word or foundation, without which the productive forces of the people within this particular geopolitical border can be harnessed, refined, and released in order to, first, benefit the physical and spritual wellness of Filipinos, repair and recover the damage inflicted by centuries of colonial oppression and exploitation, and thus be able to contribute to the cultural heritage of humankind.That is why mandating the go on teaching of English equally with Filipino, with the mother language as auxiliary, at the secondary level, betokens a schizophrenic if not treacherous and treasonous policy of the ruling class beholden to U. S. and transnational corporate interests. Without an independent national physiognomy, Filipinos have nothing distinctive to share with other nations and peoples. Without national self-determination and a historically defined identity, there is no way Filipinos can contribute their distinctive share in global culture.In fact, it is out(predicate) to be a global citizen unless you have fully grown and full-blown as an effective democratic p articipant in the making of a prosperous, egalitarian nation-people in a historically specific territory defined by a concretely differentiated sequence of events not replicated elsewhere. _________________ Ang layon natin ay hindi lamang kultural na identidad, o kasiyaang pang-kalinangan. Sa gitna ng komodipikasyon ng lahat, sa gitna ng laganap na konsumerismo at paghahari ng halagang-pamalit (exchange-value), ang reipikasyon at alyenasyon ng ugnayan ng mga tao ay siyang nagpapalabo sa usapin ng wika.Hindi malulutas ang mga tanong tungkol sa wika hanggang hindi nahaharap ang mistipikasyon ng pakikipagkapwa, na ngayoy natatabingan at nalalambungan ng mga komoditi, bilihin, salapi, na tila siyang umuugit, nagpapagalaw, namamahalat gumagabay sa lahat ng bagay. Ang mistipikasyong ito ay mawawala lamang kung mapapanaw ang paghahari ng global na kapital, ang patakaran na tubo/yaman muna bago kapakanan ng taona, sa ngayon, ay nagsasalita sa Ingles, ang wika ng kongkistador na pumalit sa m ga Kastila.Ang pagbuot pagpapayaman ng isang pambansang wika, Filipino, ay hindi nangangahulugan ng pagsasaisantabi o pagbabalewala sa ibang mga wikang ginagamit ng maraming komunidad. Ang pagpapalawig at pagsuporta sa mga wikang ito ay matutupad kung may basehan lamang ang kasarinlan ng bansa batay sa pagpapalaya sa masa. Sa harap ng higanteng lakas ng kapitalismong global, maisusulong lamang ang proyektong nabanggit ko kung makikibaka tayo sa programa ng pagbabago tungo sa pamamayani, gahum, ng masang gumagawa.Ang wika ay maaaring maging mapagpalayang sandata kung itoy binubuhay ng masa sa pang-araw-araw na kilos at gawa. __________________ Historical examples are often misleading, but sometimes elucidatory. It may be irrelevant and even Eurocentric to invoke the examples of Italy and Germany as nations that experienced unified mobilization through and through the affirmation of national-popular languages, Italy vis-a-vis the Papal ascendancy, and Germany vis-a-vis Latin/Roman Cat holic hegemony.In any case, again, the social and historical function and character of language cannot be adequately grasped without situating them in the complex dynamics of the conflict of social classes in history since the break-up of the communal tribes in the hunting-gathering stage, since the rise of private property in the means of production, and the intricate dialectics of culture and collective psyche in the political economy of any social formation.In short, language is not just a permanently undecidable chain of signifiers, always deconstructing itself and falling into immeasurable meaninglessness, a vertigo of nonsense and silly absurdities quite appropriate, of course, for pettybourgeois careerists, dilettantes, and hirelings of the oligarchs. Rather, language is a social convention and a site of struggle, the signifier conceived as an vault of heaven of class struggle (1986, 23) to use Mikhail Bakhtins synthesizing phrase.To conclude these reflections with an open- ended cross I believe that only from this historical materialist perspective, and within the parameters of the political project of attaining genuine autonomy as a nation-people, can the discussion of a Filipino national language be intelligible and productive. But, again, such a discussion finds its value and validity as part of the total engagement of the people for justice, authentic national independence, and all-sided emancipation from the nightmares of the past and the terrorist fascism of the present._____________________ Ang wika ay isang larangan o arena ng tunggalian ng mga uri, ayon kay Mikhail Bakhtin. Naniniwala ako na ang usaping ito, kung ano talaga ang wikang pambansa, ay masasagot lamang sa loob ng proyektong pampulitika, tinimbang at sinipat sa isang materyalistiko-istorikal na pananaw. Ang wika ay praktipang panlipunan, isang produktibong lakas ng sambayanan.Nakapanahon ngang maintindihan natin ito ngayon kung matagumpay na madalumat at mapahalagahann ang kolekti bong saloobin ng sambayanan, na ngayon ay naisasatinig sa anagramatikong islogan ZOBRA NA, TAMA NA, EXIT NA Samantala, panahon na ngayon at pagkakataong mapakinggan ang iba pang tinig ng madla rito sa makasaysayang hapong ito, una muna ang kasamang Bien Lumbera. REFERENCES Bakhtin, Mikhail/V/ N. Voloshinov. 1986. Marxism and the Philosophy of Language, translated by Ladislav Matejka and I. R. Titunik. Cambridge, bargain Harvard University Press. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1998. Practical Reason.Stanford, CA Stanford University Press. Gramsci, Antonio. 1971. Selections from the Prison Notebooks, edited by Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith. New York International Publishers. Ives, Peter. 2004. Language and Hegemony in Gramsci. London Pluto Press. Rossi-Landi, Ferruccio. 1983. Language as Work and Trade. South Hadley, Mass Bergin & Garvey Publishers, Inc. Zialcita, Fernando. 2005. Authentic Though Not Exotic Essays on Filipino Identity. Quezon City Ateneo de Manila University Press.

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