Saturday, January 19, 2019

AIDS in World History

The epizootic of human immunodeficiency (human immunodeficiency virus) virus causing acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( support) has transformed spherical history involving the emergence of affectionate norms and stereotypes against Black races, homosexuals, and countries plagued by the disease (e.g. Africa, Thailand, etc.).Historically, the archetypal convincing evidence of human immunodeficiency virus virus and actual disease routine of acquired immune deficiency syndrome was institute in the blood of an unknown man from Kinshasa, Africa in 1959 (Iliffe, 2007 p.311). Eventually, the infection reached the Western Nations initially in Los Angeles around June 1981 wherein a elevated pulmonary Pneumocystis carinii was found infecting six cases with blood-borne HIV condition (Feigal, Levine and Biggar, 2000 p.1).By mid-1982, approximately 450 cases of HIV had been identified by CDC, and by the end of the year, an estimated case increase of ccc or more was received by the same organization (Finkel, 2007 p.89). The return marked the first support epiphytotic creating a global speck against races, demographics, countries and gender associated with the disease epidemiology (Parker and Aggleton, 2003).From 1982 to 1985, assist and HIV monitoring institutions were able to bear down an approximate 16,000 cases of HIV, while death toll caused by the disease had reached 8,100 for 1985 just (Finkel, 2007 p.89). By the end of 2002, UNAIDS reported 42 billion people with AIDS worldwide, while 25 one million million million had already died of the infection (Porth, 2005 p.427).Due to the change magnitude tote up of infected population, AIDS had reshaped the world history by influencing the worlds views on countries, nations, and people responsible for the spread of the disease across the globe.I. Discussiona. Epidemiology and its international ImpactAIDS plaguey has kept on growing in its exponential place since its marked disc all overy in June, 1981. In United States, AIDS pestilential rose from the 1985 Centers for Disease Control (CDC) records of 5,600 to 82,764 in 1989, 816,000 by the end of 2000, and UNAIDS records of 3.5 million by the end of 2002 (Porth, 2005 p.428 Patterson, 2005 p.179).In an international perspective, global AIDS prevalence among adults from 15 to 49 years old has increased from approximately 8.5 million in 1990 to 38.6 million in 2005, while African AIDS prevalence turn out among the similar demographics has increased as well from 1.3 million in 1985 to 25 million as of 2005 (UNAIDS, 2006).According to Steinbrook (2004), there ar nine countries that have the or so number of HIV-infected demographics, and eight of these are from sub-Saharan Africa totaling to approximately 12 million individuals with AIDS. The country and race of African people have been severely stirred by the global stereotypes and trauma against AIDS.According to Iliffe (2007), convincing trace of HIV-1 transmission has been si ght in chimpanzees exclusive to the region of Kinshasa, while the ten subtypes of HIV-1 have been found in an early epidemic only within the equatorial Africa, which consequently suggests the viral origin of AIDS (p.311).The increasing international blade over sub-Saharan Africa has affected the global ethnicities of blacks, African American and African immigrants in every part of the world (Steinbrook, 2004).According to the revaluation study of Valdiserri (2002), race and ethnic groups associated with the groups dramatically affected by AIDS infection have go through minus attitudes, injury, judgment and discrimination from the complaisant ordinary.b. Global Trend of AIDS EpidemicThe complex hallmark of AIDS in World History involves the acclivitous trend of social scar against AIDS epidemic and demographics associated with the disease epidemiology (Steinbrook, 2004).According to the review study of Valdiserri (2002), series of national interviews from 1990s to 2000 rev eals that the 1 out of 5 individuals living in the study s vitamin Ale (n=5,600 American adults) possess negative attitudes against races associated and patients with AIDS.According to Perloff (2001), the increasing trend of AIDS epidemic triggered various social prejudice and negative attitudes against various groups of individuals across the world. In mainland atomic number 16 Africa, women and children who obtained HIV becomes the social projection of rejection, prejudice and discrimination brought by the global stigma towards AIDS (Brown, Macintyre and Trujilo, 2003).In United States, African American or Blacks have been viewed negatively later the American public harbor more stigmatizing attitudes from sub-Saharas reported HIV infection, while in Thailand, social hostility towards prostitutes (e.g. police harassment, discrimination, etc.) are increasing consistently (Perloff, 2001 p.130).According to Armstrong-Dailey and Zarbock (2001), the common impact of AIDS stigma on a g lobal perspective is the development of social ostracism among families or patients who contract with AIDS (p.119).According to the study of Sudha, Vijay and Lakshmi (2005), 51.13% of the sample (n=800) felt the need to publicly check the names of AIDS patients for the public to avoid them, while 73.75% of the families interviewed prefer to guard AIDS condition among family relatives only.Discrimination brought by the public and even medical checkup practitioners becomes the by-product of the worldwide stigma stimulated by the exponential growth say of AIDS (Perloff, 2001 p.130).c. Impact of AIDS in Future GenerationWith the continuous emerging trend of AIDS population worldwide, social stigma of the everyday public against the race, demographics and individuals associated with the disease epidemiology is likely to increase causing global negative attitudes, caution and prejudice against their population (Armstrong-Dailey and Zarbock, 2001 p.119).Contrary to the above predic tions, the study of Blower, Schwartz and Mills (2003), public stigma against AIDS patient may reduce depending on the increasing health awareness of the public regarding HIV prevention and patient management.Meanwhile, Piot, Bartos and Ghys et al. (2001) have predicted that the adjacent future implications of AIDS epidemic in high stakes countries (e.g. southbound Africa, Thailand, U.S, etc.) are (a) the increase in medical expenditures of the country (e.g. predicted 45% in South Africa, etc.), (b) decreased of life expectancy (e.g. 59 y/o down to 45 y/o by 2005 in South Africa, etc.), and (c) reduced economic efficiency of the countrys economy.II. ConclusionFrom the localized outbreak of 1981 to the massive infection of 21st century, AIDS has dramatically affected the global trend of social perceptions and health care due to the global stigma caused by the exponential increases of AIDS epidemic.AIDS patients in globally known epidemic countries, such as South Africa, India, Uni ted States, Thailand, are predicted to suffer social ostracism wherein patients may fail to publicly seek AIDS medical treatment due to their fears of discrimination, persecution and inferior treatment.According to presented studies, the global effects of AIDS epidemic may increase the countries allocations for medical expenditures, and decrease the life expectancy of the general population.III. ReferencesArmstrong-Dailey, A., & Zarbock, S. F. (2001). Hospice Care for Children. New York, London Oxford University Press US.Blower, S., Schwartz, E. J., & Mills, J. (2003, June). soothsaying the Future of HIV Epidemics the Impact of Antiretroviral Therapies & Imperfect Vaccines. AIDS Reviews, 5, 113-125.Brown, L., Macintyre, K., & Trujillo, L. (2003, February). Interventions to Reduce HIV/AIDS Stigma What Have We Learned?. AIDS Education and Prevention, 15, 49-69.Feigal, E. G., Levine, A. M., & Biggar, R. J. (2000). AIDS-related Cancers and Their Treatment. New York, U.S. A Informa Health Care.Finkel, M. (2007). Truth, Lies, and Public Health How We are Affected when Science and Politics Collide. New York, U.S.A Greenwood Publishing Group.Iliffe, J. (2007). Africans The History of a Continent. New York, London Cambridge University Press.

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