Saturday, February 29, 2020

Building Acts and Contracts

* Site photos: * Discussion: – The room must be provided with natural lighting and ventilation with the area of window must be more than 10% of the floor area and the openings must not less than 5% of the floor area. – For this room, the floor area = 2. 62m x 3. 52m = 9. 22 m2 The window area = 1. 78m x 1. 195m = 2. 13 m2 Natural lighting = (2. 13 m2 / 9. 22m2) x 100% = 23. 1 % 23. 1 % 10% (comply with UBBL) Natural ventilation = 23. 1% 5% (comply with UBBL) Hence this room in Taman Bunga Raya is complying with Uniform Building By Law. Clause 39(3) * † Every room used for purpose of conducting classes in a school shall be provided with natural lighting and natural ventilation by means of one or more windows having a total area of not less than 20% of clear floor area of such rooms and shall have openings capable of allowing a free uninterrupted passage of air of not less than 10% of such floor area. † * Date: November 26, 2012 * Location: TARC Block M305 * Site photos: * Discussion: The classroom must be provided with natural lighting and ventilation with the area of window must be more than 20% of the floor area and the openings must not less than 10% of the floor area. * For this classroom, the floor area = 9. 08m x 7. 465m = 67. 78m2 The window area = 1. 785m x 1. 45m = 2. 59m2 6 windows = 6 x 2. 59m2 = 15. 54m2 Natural lighting = (15. 54m2/ 67. 78m2) x 100% = 22. 93% 22. 93% 20% (comply with UBBL) Natural ventilation = 22. 93% 10% (comply with UBBL) * So this classroom is complying with UBBL. Clause 39(4) â€Å"Every water- closet, latrine, urinal or bathroom shall be provided with natural lighting and natural ventilation by means of one or more openings having a total area of not less than 0. 2 square meters per water-closet, urinal latrine or bathroom and such openings shall be capable of allowing a free uninterrupted passage of air. † * Date: November 26, 2012 * Location: Toilet at residential house of Taman Bunga Ray a. * Site photos: * Discussion: * There are one water-closet and one bathroom inside. * 2 x 0. 2 = 0. 4 * Area of window = 0. 625m x 0. 635m = 0. 40m2 Since the opening has a total area of 0. 40m2 which is equal, hence it complies with the UBBL. B) Clause 42. 1 * The area of first habitable room in a residential building shall be not less than 11 square meters, * Date : 30/11/12 * Location : Residential house at Kepong Baru * Site photos: * Discussion: -the area of room shall be not less than 11 square meters For this room, the area is = 10m x 13m =130m2 130m2 11m2 (comply with UBBL) -Hence this room area is comply with Uniform Building By Law * The area of second habitable room in a residential building shall be not less than 9. square meters, * Date : 30/11/12 * Location : Residential house at Kepong Baru * Site photo : * Discussion : -The area of room must be more than 9. 3 square meters; -Area of this room is 3. 5m2x 4m2 =14m2 14m2 9. 3m2 (Comply with UBBL) -Hence the second r oom area is comply with Uniform Building By Law * All the other rooms shall be not less than 6. 5 square meters in area * Date : 30/11/12 * Location : Residential house at Kepong Baru * Site photo : * Discussion : -The room area must be more than 6. 5 square meters -Area of the room is 2. 75m2 x 3. m2 = 8. 525m2 8. 525m2 6. 5m2 (Comply with UBBL) -The area of room is more than 6. 5m2 so it is comply with Uniform Building By Law Clause 42. 2 The width of every habitable room in a residential building shall be not less than 2 meters * The width of every room in a residential building must be more than 2 meters * Date : 30/11/12 * Location : Residential house at Kepong Baru * Site photo : * Discussion : -Refer to the photo above the width of room is 2. 75m -2. 75m 2m (Comply with UBBL) -Hence this room is comply with Uniform Building By Law Clause 42. 3 The area and width of a kitchen in a residential building shall be not less than 4. 5 square meters and 1. 5 meters respectively * Area of a kitchen must be more than 4. 5 square meters and width must be more than 1. 5 meters * Date : 30/11/12 * Location : Residential house at Kepong Baru * Site photo : * Discussion : -The area of a kitchen is 7. 28m2 and width of kitchen is 2. 8m2 -Area 7. 28m2 4. 5m2 (Comply with UBBL) -Width 2. 8m2 1. 5m2 (Comply with UBBL) -Hence the area and width of kitchen is comply with Uniform Building By Law C) Clause 43 (a), (b), (c), (d) Clause 43 (a) * â€Å"†¦in the case of latrines or water-closets with pedestal-type close fittings, not less than 1. 5 metres by 0. 75 metre. † * Date: November 28, 2012 * Location: TARC Hostel Block J * Site photo: * Discussion: * Dimension of water closet : 1. 53m by 0. 85m * 1. 53m 1. 5m and 0. 85m 0. 75m, hence it complies with UBBL. Clause 43(b) * â€Å"†¦ in the case of water-closets with fittings other than pedestal-type close fittings, not less than 1. 25 metres by 0. 75 metre. † * Date: November 28, 2012 * Location: TARC Hostel Block J * Site photo: * Discussion: Dimension of water-closet: 1. 53m by 0. 85m * 1. 53m 1. 25m and 0. 85m 0. 75m, it complies with UBBL. Clause 43(c) * â€Å"†¦in the case of bathrooms, not less than 1. 5 square metres with a width of not less than 0. 75 metre. † * Date: November 28, 2012 * Location: TARC Hostel Block J * Site photo: * Discussion: * Area of bathroom = 1. 37m x 0. 86m = 1. 18m2 1. 18m2 1. 5m2 (n ot comply with UBBL) Width = 0. 86m 0. 75m (comply with UBBL) * Although the width of the bathroom in TARC Hostel is 0. 86m which comply with UBBL, but the area of the bathroom is too small which is 1. 8m2 and it did not meet the minimum requirement stated in UBBL which is 1. 5m2. Hence, this bathroom is not complying with UBBL. * Recommendation – we can increase the area of the bathroom by increasing the length of the bathroom to at least 1. 75m. Clause 43(d) * â€Å"†¦in the case the bathrooms with close fittings, not less than 2 square metres with a width of not less than 0. 75 metre. † * Date: November 28, 2012 * Location: Bathroom in residential house at Taman Bunga Raya. * Site photo: * Discussion * Area of the bathroom = 1. 5m x 1. 5m =2. 25m2 2. 25m2 2m2 (comply with UBBL) Width = 1. 5m 0. 75m (comply with UBBL) * Since the area of the bathroom is bigger than 2m2 and the width is more than 0. 75m, they all met the minimum dimensions required by UBBL. Hence, the bathroom with closet fittings in Taman Bunga Raya complies with UBBL. D) Clause 106 (1) 106(1)-In any staircase, the rise of any staircase shall be not more than 180mm and the tread shall not less than 255mm and the dimensions of the rise and the tread of the staircase so chosen shall be uniform and consistent throughout. * Date: November 28, 2012 * Location: TARC Bangunan Tan Siew Sin * Site photo: Discussion: * Dimension of staircases: 312mm x 133mm * 180mm 133mm and 312mm 255, it complies with UBBL. E) Clause 107(1), (2), (3) and (4) 107(1)-Except for staircase of less than 4 risers, all staircases shall be provided with at least one handrail. * Date: November 28, 2012 * Location: TARC Block A * Site photo: * Discussion: 4 risers /= 4 risers, so no need handrail and it complies with UBBL. 107(2)-Staircases exceeding 2225mm in width shall be provided with intermediate handrail for each 2225mm of required width spaced approximately. * Date: November 28, 2012 Location: TARC Bangunan Tan Siew Sin * Site photo: * Discussion: * Dimension of staircases: 5420mm * 5420mm 2225mm, it complies with UBBL. Clause 107(3)-In building other than residential buildings, a handrail shall be provided on each side of the staircase when the width of the staircase is 1100 mm or more. In these clause state that all the buildings except residential building, if the width of the staircase is equal or more than 1100mm, which is 1. 1m, handrail should be provided on each side of the staircase. * Date : 28th November 2012 * Venue : Staircase beside DK A, TAR College Site Photo: * Discussion : Width of staircase = 2. 53m, 2530mm – 2530mm 1100mm (stated in UBBL) so this staircase needed handrail on both sides. – This staircase is installed with both sides handrail, hence this stairc ase is comply with UBBL. Clause 107(4)-All handrails shall project not more than 100mmfrom the face of the finished wall†¦(†¦) This is the first part of Clause 107. (4) in UBBL, which means that if there is a handrail attached to the wall, the handrail should be projected out from the wall with a length of not more than 100 mm * Date : 28th November 2012 Venue : TAR College Cyber Centre * Site Photo : * Discussion : Total length projected out = 9. 3cm, 93mm – 93mm100mm (stated in UBBL) -Since this handrail projected out with 93mm, so this handrail comply with UBBL. Clause 107 (4)-(†¦)†¦ shall be located not less than 825mm and not more than 900 mm measured from the nosing of the treads.. (†¦) This is the middle part of Clause 107. (4) in UBBL, it means that the height of the handrail measured from the nosing of the treads should be in the range of 825mmto 900mm. * Date : 28th November 2012 * Venue : TAR College Cyber Centre Site Photo : * Discussion : Height of handrail = 84cm, 840mm -900mm 840mm 825mm (stated in UBBL) -Since the height of handrail is in the range of 825mm to 900mm, so it is comply with the UBBL. Clause 107 (4)-(†¦)†¦provided that handrails to landings shall not be less than 900mm from the level of the landing. This is the last part of Clause 107. (4) in UBBL. From this sentence show that the handrail at landing area should have the height of not less than 900mm measured from the landing. * Date : 28 November 2012 * Venue : TAR College Cyber Centre * Site Photo : Discussion : Height of handrail= 86. 5cm,865mm -865mm900mm (stated in UBBL) -Since the height is less than 900mm, so it is not comply with UBBL. * Recommendation: The handrail should be installed in a higher and measured before install. F) Explain the UBBL : part IV temporary works in connection with building operations Clauses 48(Commencement of building operation) (1) When there is any building works that started, the person that responsibl e for the construction work shall put a board with names, addresses and telephone numbers of the contractors and also person in charge. 2) Construction work only can start when there is a protective hoarding to separate building and public by approval and requirements of local authorities. (3) According to by-law 19, person who in charge shall obtain a temporary permit when protective hoarding is required. The protective hoarding is required to construct as shown in the approved protective hoarding plan. The constructed protective hoarding shall also be maintained in good condition during construction work to the satisfaction of local authority. Clause 49 (Responsibility of person granted temporary permits) There is some responsibility for the person who granted for temporary permit: a) Always keep the roadside drain unobstructed and clear to the satisfaction of local authority. b) Reinstatement on completion and adjustments to existing cables, pipes and other services on construction site according to requirements of relevant authorities. c) The end of the hoardings shall be painted in white color with a mark by red warning lights for safety during night time. d) Any accident and damages due to hoardings and railing to the property or persons. ) Always make sure that hydrant points or any other existing utility service installation must be unobstructed by hoardings or other materials. f) Always allow easy access over the roadside drain, to and from the adjoining verandah-ways by applying suitable openings with handrails at the end of the hoarding. g) Responsible to maintain the hoarding to the satisfaction of local authorit y. h) Always try not to damage and take good care on any existing services main with avoid overloading the ground or by any temporary construction. ) Upon the completion of works, it is a must to remove the hoarding together with all materials and debris on site. j) Always leave the site and drains clean and tidy and recover any damages to roads, drains, footways and also verandah-ways. Clause 50 (Cancellation of temporary permit) Local authority always has the right to determine the temporary permit due to breach of any above-mentioned conditions or any other reasonable reasons. Upon notification on determination of temporary permit, within one week time, the applicant shall remove all the hoardings, railings and other materials connected to public road. Clause51 (Vehicular access to site) There are some specified hours or peak hour that construction vehicular are restricted to access if necessary for avoiding obstruction of traffic nearby. Clause 52 (Rising mains to be installed progressively) According to by-law 232, rising mains shall be installed when the building designed exceed 18. 3 metres in height to the top most full floor. For the ease of fire fighting and precaution with providing fire fighting facilities during various stage of construction. References Uniform Building By-Laws. Building Acts and Contracts * Site photos: * Discussion: – The room must be provided with natural lighting and ventilation with the area of window must be more than 10% of the floor area and the openings must not less than 5% of the floor area. – For this room, the floor area = 2. 62m x 3. 52m = 9. 22 m2 The window area = 1. 78m x 1. 195m = 2. 13 m2 Natural lighting = (2. 13 m2 / 9. 22m2) x 100% = 23. 1 % 23. 1 % 10% (comply with UBBL) Natural ventilation = 23. 1% 5% (comply with UBBL) Hence this room in Taman Bunga Raya is complying with Uniform Building By Law. Clause 39(3) * † Every room used for purpose of conducting classes in a school shall be provided with natural lighting and natural ventilation by means of one or more windows having a total area of not less than 20% of clear floor area of such rooms and shall have openings capable of allowing a free uninterrupted passage of air of not less than 10% of such floor area. † * Date: November 26, 2012 * Location: TARC Block M305 * Site photos: * Discussion: The classroom must be provided with natural lighting and ventilation with the area of window must be more than 20% of the floor area and the openings must not less than 10% of the floor area. * For this classroom, the floor area = 9. 08m x 7. 465m = 67. 78m2 The window area = 1. 785m x 1. 45m = 2. 59m2 6 windows = 6 x 2. 59m2 = 15. 54m2 Natural lighting = (15. 54m2/ 67. 78m2) x 100% = 22. 93% 22. 93% 20% (comply with UBBL) Natural ventilation = 22. 93% 10% (comply with UBBL) * So this classroom is complying with UBBL. Clause 39(4) â€Å"Every water- closet, latrine, urinal or bathroom shall be provided with natural lighting and natural ventilation by means of one or more openings having a total area of not less than 0. 2 square meters per water-closet, urinal latrine or bathroom and such openings shall be capable of allowing a free uninterrupted passage of air. † * Date: November 26, 2012 * Location: Toilet at residential house of Taman Bunga Ray a. * Site photos: * Discussion: * There are one water-closet and one bathroom inside. * 2 x 0. 2 = 0. 4 * Area of window = 0. 625m x 0. 635m = 0. 40m2 Since the opening has a total area of 0. 40m2 which is equal, hence it complies with the UBBL. B) Clause 42. 1 * The area of first habitable room in a residential building shall be not less than 11 square meters, * Date : 30/11/12 * Location : Residential house at Kepong Baru * Site photos: * Discussion: -the area of room shall be not less than 11 square meters For this room, the area is = 10m x 13m =130m2 130m2 11m2 (comply with UBBL) -Hence this room area is comply with Uniform Building By Law * The area of second habitable room in a residential building shall be not less than 9. square meters, * Date : 30/11/12 * Location : Residential house at Kepong Baru * Site photo : * Discussion : -The area of room must be more than 9. 3 square meters; -Area of this room is 3. 5m2x 4m2 =14m2 14m2 9. 3m2 (Comply with UBBL) -Hence the second r oom area is comply with Uniform Building By Law * All the other rooms shall be not less than 6. 5 square meters in area * Date : 30/11/12 * Location : Residential house at Kepong Baru * Site photo : * Discussion : -The room area must be more than 6. 5 square meters -Area of the room is 2. 75m2 x 3. m2 = 8. 525m2 8. 525m2 6. 5m2 (Comply with UBBL) -The area of room is more than 6. 5m2 so it is comply with Uniform Building By Law Clause 42. 2 The width of every habitable room in a residential building shall be not less than 2 meters * The width of every room in a residential building must be more than 2 meters * Date : 30/11/12 * Location : Residential house at Kepong Baru * Site photo : * Discussion : -Refer to the photo above the width of room is 2. 75m -2. 75m 2m (Comply with UBBL) -Hence this room is comply with Uniform Building By Law Clause 42. 3 The area and width of a kitchen in a residential building shall be not less than 4. 5 square meters and 1. 5 meters respectively * Area of a kitchen must be more than 4. 5 square meters and width must be more than 1. 5 meters * Date : 30/11/12 * Location : Residential house at Kepong Baru * Site photo : * Discussion : -The area of a kitchen is 7. 28m2 and width of kitchen is 2. 8m2 -Area 7. 28m2 4. 5m2 (Comply with UBBL) -Width 2. 8m2 1. 5m2 (Comply with UBBL) -Hence the area and width of kitchen is comply with Uniform Building By Law C) Clause 43 (a), (b), (c), (d) Clause 43 (a) * â€Å"†¦in the case of latrines or water-closets with pedestal-type close fittings, not less than 1. 5 metres by 0. 75 metre. † * Date: November 28, 2012 * Location: TARC Hostel Block J * Site photo: * Discussion: * Dimension of water closet : 1. 53m by 0. 85m * 1. 53m 1. 5m and 0. 85m 0. 75m, hence it complies with UBBL. Clause 43(b) * â€Å"†¦ in the case of water-closets with fittings other than pedestal-type close fittings, not less than 1. 25 metres by 0. 75 metre. † * Date: November 28, 2012 * Location: TARC Hostel Block J * Site photo: * Discussion: Dimension of water-closet: 1. 53m by 0. 85m * 1. 53m 1. 25m and 0. 85m 0. 75m, it complies with UBBL. Clause 43(c) * â€Å"†¦in the case of bathrooms, not less than 1. 5 square metres with a width of not less than 0. 75 metre. † * Date: November 28, 2012 * Location: TARC Hostel Block J * Site photo: * Discussion: * Area of bathroom = 1. 37m x 0. 86m = 1. 18m2 1. 18m2 1. 5m2 (n ot comply with UBBL) Width = 0. 86m 0. 75m (comply with UBBL) * Although the width of the bathroom in TARC Hostel is 0. 86m which comply with UBBL, but the area of the bathroom is too small which is 1. 8m2 and it did not meet the minimum requirement stated in UBBL which is 1. 5m2. Hence, this bathroom is not complying with UBBL. * Recommendation – we can increase the area of the bathroom by increasing the length of the bathroom to at least 1. 75m. Clause 43(d) * â€Å"†¦in the case the bathrooms with close fittings, not less than 2 square metres with a width of not less than 0. 75 metre. † * Date: November 28, 2012 * Location: Bathroom in residential house at Taman Bunga Raya. * Site photo: * Discussion * Area of the bathroom = 1. 5m x 1. 5m =2. 25m2 2. 25m2 2m2 (comply with UBBL) Width = 1. 5m 0. 75m (comply with UBBL) * Since the area of the bathroom is bigger than 2m2 and the width is more than 0. 75m, they all met the minimum dimensions required by UBBL. Hence, the bathroom with closet fittings in Taman Bunga Raya complies with UBBL. D) Clause 106 (1) 106(1)-In any staircase, the rise of any staircase shall be not more than 180mm and the tread shall not less than 255mm and the dimensions of the rise and the tread of the staircase so chosen shall be uniform and consistent throughout. * Date: November 28, 2012 * Location: TARC Bangunan Tan Siew Sin * Site photo: Discussion: * Dimension of staircases: 312mm x 133mm * 180mm 133mm and 312mm 255, it complies with UBBL. E) Clause 107(1), (2), (3) and (4) 107(1)-Except for staircase of less than 4 risers, all staircases shall be provided with at least one handrail. * Date: November 28, 2012 * Location: TARC Block A * Site photo: * Discussion: 4 risers /= 4 risers, so no need handrail and it complies with UBBL. 107(2)-Staircases exceeding 2225mm in width shall be provided with intermediate handrail for each 2225mm of required width spaced approximately. * Date: November 28, 2012 Location: TARC Bangunan Tan Siew Sin * Site photo: * Discussion: * Dimension of staircases: 5420mm * 5420mm 2225mm, it complies with UBBL. Clause 107(3)-In building other than residential buildings, a handrail shall be provided on each side of the staircase when the width of the staircase is 1100 mm or more. In these clause state that all the buildings except residential building, if the width of the staircase is equal or more than 1100mm, which is 1. 1m, handrail should be provided on each side of the staircase. * Date : 28th November 2012 * Venue : Staircase beside DK A, TAR College Site Photo: * Discussion : Width of staircase = 2. 53m, 2530mm – 2530mm 1100mm (stated in UBBL) so this staircase needed handrail on both sides. – This staircase is installed with both sides handrail, hence this stairc ase is comply with UBBL. Clause 107(4)-All handrails shall project not more than 100mmfrom the face of the finished wall†¦(†¦) This is the first part of Clause 107. (4) in UBBL, which means that if there is a handrail attached to the wall, the handrail should be projected out from the wall with a length of not more than 100 mm * Date : 28th November 2012 Venue : TAR College Cyber Centre * Site Photo : * Discussion : Total length projected out = 9. 3cm, 93mm – 93mm100mm (stated in UBBL) -Since this handrail projected out with 93mm, so this handrail comply with UBBL. Clause 107 (4)-(†¦)†¦ shall be located not less than 825mm and not more than 900 mm measured from the nosing of the treads.. (†¦) This is the middle part of Clause 107. (4) in UBBL, it means that the height of the handrail measured from the nosing of the treads should be in the range of 825mmto 900mm. * Date : 28th November 2012 * Venue : TAR College Cyber Centre Site Photo : * Discussion : Height of handrail = 84cm, 840mm -900mm 840mm 825mm (stated in UBBL) -Since the height of handrail is in the range of 825mm to 900mm, so it is comply with the UBBL. Clause 107 (4)-(†¦)†¦provided that handrails to landings shall not be less than 900mm from the level of the landing. This is the last part of Clause 107. (4) in UBBL. From this sentence show that the handrail at landing area should have the height of not less than 900mm measured from the landing. * Date : 28 November 2012 * Venue : TAR College Cyber Centre * Site Photo : Discussion : Height of handrail= 86. 5cm,865mm -865mm900mm (stated in UBBL) -Since the height is less than 900mm, so it is not comply with UBBL. * Recommendation: The handrail should be installed in a higher and measured before install. F) Explain the UBBL : part IV temporary works in connection with building operations Clauses 48(Commencement of building operation) (1) When there is any building works that started, the person that responsibl e for the construction work shall put a board with names, addresses and telephone numbers of the contractors and also person in charge. 2) Construction work only can start when there is a protective hoarding to separate building and public by approval and requirements of local authorities. (3) According to by-law 19, person who in charge shall obtain a temporary permit when protective hoarding is required. The protective hoarding is required to construct as shown in the approved protective hoarding plan. The constructed protective hoarding shall also be maintained in good condition during construction work to the satisfaction of local authority. Clause 49 (Responsibility of person granted temporary permits) There is some responsibility for the person who granted for temporary permit: a) Always keep the roadside drain unobstructed and clear to the satisfaction of local authority. b) Reinstatement on completion and adjustments to existing cables, pipes and other services on construction site according to requirements of relevant authorities. c) The end of the hoardings shall be painted in white color with a mark by red warning lights for safety during night time. d) Any accident and damages due to hoardings and railing to the property or persons. ) Always make sure that hydrant points or any other existing utility service installation must be unobstructed by hoardings or other materials. f) Always allow easy access over the roadside drain, to and from the adjoining verandah-ways by applying suitable openings with handrails at the end of the hoarding. g) Responsible to maintain the hoarding to the satisfaction of local authorit y. h) Always try not to damage and take good care on any existing services main with avoid overloading the ground or by any temporary construction. ) Upon the completion of works, it is a must to remove the hoarding together with all materials and debris on site. j) Always leave the site and drains clean and tidy and recover any damages to roads, drains, footways and also verandah-ways. Clause 50 (Cancellation of temporary permit) Local authority always has the right to determine the temporary permit due to breach of any above-mentioned conditions or any other reasonable reasons. Upon notification on determination of temporary permit, within one week time, the applicant shall remove all the hoardings, railings and other materials connected to public road. Clause51 (Vehicular access to site) There are some specified hours or peak hour that construction vehicular are restricted to access if necessary for avoiding obstruction of traffic nearby. Clause 52 (Rising mains to be installed progressively) According to by-law 232, rising mains shall be installed when the building designed exceed 18. 3 metres in height to the top most full floor. For the ease of fire fighting and precaution with providing fire fighting facilities during various stage of construction. References Uniform Building By-Laws.

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