Saturday, October 26, 2019
The Conflict Between Individual And State And The Grammatical Fiction :: essays research papers
The Conflict Between the Individual and the State and the Grammatical Fiction in Darkness At Noon "The Party denied the free will of an individual-and at the same time exacted his willing self-sacrifice." The obvious contradiction of the above definition of the Communist party is depicts the conflict between the individual and the State in Arthur KoestlerÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Darkness at Noon. KoestlerÃ¢â¬â¢s protagonist Nicolas Salamanovich Rubashov, devout communist and former leader of the Communist party, falls victim to his own system during the time of the Moscow trials. Accused and imprisoned for crimes he did not commit, Rubashov is forced to choose between the ideology he has faithfully followed for the past forty years of his life, or a new found sense of self, which he calls the "grammatical fiction".During the beginning of RubashovÃ¢â¬â¢s solitary incarceration, he begins to doubt the infallibility of the Communist regime, and for a time, views himself independent from the Party. RubashovÃ¢â¬â¢s pulling away from Communism is evident in his conversation with the examining magistrate, Ivanov, during his first hearing. Rubashov addresses IvanovÃ¢â¬â¢s collective viewpoint with the developing views of his own:"Your argument is somewhat anachronistic," said Rubashov. "As you quite rightly remarked, we were accustomed always to use the plural Ã¢â¬ËweÃ¢â¬â¢ and to avoid as far as possible the first person singular. I have rather lost the habit of this form of speech; you stick to it. But who is this Ã¢â¬ËweÃ¢â¬â¢ in whose name you speak to-day? It needs re-defining. That is the point."Apart from the Party, Rubashov no longer functions as part of the Communist unit, but rather as an individual. Within communist doctrine the individual is only a piece of a larger system, and for the true communist the pronoun Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢ is not even part of his or her vocabulary. Rather, the personal Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢ is replaced by Ã¢â¬ËweÃ¢â¬â¢, which represents the Party. The significance of RubashovÃ¢â¬â¢s statement is that even his speech patterns, a physical manifestation of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s subconscious, display his self-detachment from the Communist Party in that he has lost his ability to associate with the communist We. Over and over Rubashov is tormented by the idea "I shall pay", an unrest due to his uncertainty about the foundation of Communism he has placed himself on. Shortly after his first hearing he writes in his diary "The fact is: I no longer believe in my infallibility. That is why I am lost.