Saturday, September 21, 2019
Construction Of The Questionnaire And Interview Schedule Marketing Essay
Construction Of The Questionnaire And Interview Schedule Marketing Essay Setting up a research has different approaches. In order to have a structured research paper, the methods and processes have to be clarified before starting the research. Different research styles and traditions are explained in the book of Finn, Elliott-Whit, Walton (2000). In this Bachlor Thesis, the survey method as research style and the positivistic approach as research traditions have been chosen. The lead questions will be answerd in the Descussion of the Results. The results are measurable, and the presentation of new ideas are based on the empirical data from the survey. In the quantitative research, a descriptive data analysis has been done, as it has a deductive approach. Figure 1: Generall Research Approach Theory Hypothesis Data collection Data analysis Research findings Accept or reject hypothesis Procedure and Approach The procedure and approach that was applied for this work will be explained in this subchapter. In the table below there is an overview of the approaches used: Table 1: Research Procedure and Approach Literature Review Internet, computer database, reports, articles, books have been used Methodology Deduction = The lead question will be tested Research Paradigm A positivistic approach was used Research Designs Qualitative approach Survey Method Online Survey with the program Surveymonkey External sources Regular contact with the Advisor and the external partner Hilke Patzwall (VAUDE) Data Analysis The online program Surveymonkey helped to evaluate the survey and to develop figures and graphs. (Source: Own illustration)Setting up a Research Question In February 2010 the aim of this paper was introduced in the first meeting with Mr. Luthe. With the external advisor Ms. Patzwall, there was a continuous Email contact. The lead questions and research problems were defined and set up. The lead question is: Are customers ready to buy recycled products and would they participate in a recycling program? Wurde diese Frage beantwortet?In Discussion of the results Information Search In the meantime, useful primary and secondary data was collected. The link of the survey was sent to 4500 addresses through a newsletter of VAUDE. Approximately 50 surveys were completed. This is a return rate of 1.1%. A circular mail was sent to over 500 Email addresses, which were gained through the internet. These addresses were all somehow related to the outdoor industry. More answers were gained thanks to an outdoor blog, www.outdoor-blog.com, and through a twitter account with 165 outdoor followers. The rest of the responses were received at the OutDoor Exhibition in Friedrichshafen, where the author gained 30 Email addresses. Stages in Survey Research The effects and causes through statistical analysis are shown thanks to the emphasis of Finn, Elliott-Whit, Walton (2000). A survey research is proposed with different stages. Subsequent stages are considered in the survey development; it is a modified version based on Finn, Elliott-Whit, Walton ( 2000,p. 87): 1. Appropriate conceptualization and structuring of the research problem 2. Derivation of appropriate measures of the key concepts 3. Determination of the sampling strategy 4. Construction of the questionnaire and interview schedule 5. Pre-testing the survey 6. Refining and modifying 7. Administration of the questionnaire 8. Data coding and processing 9. Data analysis and evaluation 10. Report writing All these steps combined help to get a better output, as they support the use of multiple methods. (Finn, Elliott-Whit, Walton, 2000) Pretest Set Data for Survey A pre-test was done with 112 participants. Based on the results of the pre-test, some adjustments were made. First of all, some answer options were added and also some questions were removed and formulated differently. The following big adjustments were made: Answer options added: Question 3: Which products do you separate from the usual domestic waste? Medicinal products Question 4: What do you do with your clothes which you do not wear anymore? Donate them to a charitable organisation and throw them away. Question 6: What are the reasons for the disposal of your clothes? Clothes are shabby or damaged Question 9: Why do you purchase a new outdoor jacket? Damaged Question 10: What do you do with the old outdoor jackets, which you dont wear anymore? Throw them away Question that were reorganised/relocated: Question 14 (Are you ready now, with the new knowledge gained, to participate in a recycling program for outdoor jackets?) moved to question 22. As there are more questions between the first time asked, people taking the survey really had the opportunity to gain new knowledge. Questions 15, 16, 17 and 18. (Are you ready to return your outdoor jacket to a specialist shop for a shopping voucher of 5 Euro?) The amount of money was too high. The lowest amount of vouchers giving back is 5 Euro to the highest with 20. Internet Survey The survey is on the basis of opinion survey. The needs, beliefs and behaviour are needed for my bachelor thesis. The interview form is very structured and done online. It is filled out by the consumer of outdoor equipment. As an incentive, VAUDE provides a bag which is made of recycled PET bottles to participants. The first question (Which outdoor sport activities do you follow regularly?) was to identify what kind of outdoor sports participants do. The second question was connected with the first. The aim of this question was to get a deeper look into the regularity of the outdoor sport done. To introduce the issue of recycling, the third question was about the separation of used products form usual domestic waste. Question number four had the aim to gain a deeper look at how clothes have been disposed until now. This question can be compared with question number ten, as it is the same question but instead of clothes disposal, it is about the disposal of outdoor jackets. How often the clothes disposal is done, is the next question, which helps to gain a deeper view into the habits surrounding clothes disposal. Question number six has the same aim. The first question about outdoor jackets is number seven, which shows the kind of outdoor jackets the survey takers own. The following question shows how often a new outdoor jacket will be purchased. The aim of this question is to understand why a new outdoor jacket is needed, so a connection can be made with purchase frequency. After four introducing questions about the outdoor jacket, the following recycling question is asked: Are you ready to recycle your outdoor jacket? This question is asked again at the end of the survey, question 22. There are nine questions between the first time and the second time asked. This is done because it will show whether they vary their beliefs about recycling their outdoor jackets. In question number twelve the willingness to purchase a recycled outdoor jacket is inquired about, to get information about customers interest. The next question is about the willingness to recycle, with the information, that recycling saves resources. That should show how the survey taker reacts given more information, as well as having the idea to do something good with the recycling of old outdoor jackets. Question number 14 points out the cooperation possibilities in the recycling program, it discloses the preferences. A rating system was introduced, and the respondent had the choice between three answers: ready, not sure or not ready. Four questions are about the amount of a store credit if the outdoor jacket is brought back to the store. It was chosen to ask a separate question for each amount. The idea behind this is that the participants are not prejudiced by the different amounts. The answers here are also a rating system with the same three different responses. The first question has the amount of 5 Euro, second of 10 Euro, third of 15 Euro and the last one of 20 Euro. These four questions will be analyzed and compared to gain the highest return of the outdoor jackets. Another question is to gain information about the willingness to pay a fixed recycling fee, which is paid as an extra charge on the normal price of an outdoor jacket. A following question is how high the fixed recycling fee should be, that the customer of a new recycling jacket would pay this fee. At the end of the survey demographic questions are asked, like sex, age, monthly net income per person in Euro, residence, the profession and the highest education complete. Survey Data and Evaluation When the number of surveys needed was reached, the link was closed and the evaluation of the surveys could be started. Graphs and figures were created and interpreted. The result of each question is shown fist, afterwards the six most important questions are analysed by socio-demographic data. These socio-demographic factors are: age, sex and education. They were selected as the most participants filled out these three questions in the survey. A differentiation between age and sex shows the aspects of women and men as well as those of different age groups. Another reason for selecting education was that the LOHAS differentiate from the other Lifestyles through education. The result of this analysis can be seen in chapter five. It has to be said that the work is not representative, as there are not the same amount of people in each social factor group. It should have been measured with the help of the population structure. In this short time it is not possible to do a representative s urvey as would be needed for a dissertation. This survey shows tendency and gives some further inputs. It needs to be mentioned that for the questions asked in this survey, often there is a limitation in interpreting the questions. This limitation is known as the intention-behaviour gap. It is a big gap between having an intention to do so and the actual behavior. This theory was introduced by Martin Fishbein in 1975. Aizen said a behavior is a function of compatible intentions and perceptions of behavioral control in that perceived behavioral control is expected to moderate the effect of intention on behavior, such that a favorable intention produces the behavior only when perceived behavioral control is strong. (Aizen, n.d.) For this reason the results in this survey need to be considered with care. Sadly a big gap remains between the percentage of people which have an awareness of the problem and those who take action to solve it. A study at Yale University showed that 92% are aware about the problem of global warming but it has a low priority relative to other issues. (Tan, 2008) Hypothesis In this thesis there are tree hypotheses formulated, which are proved or disproved in the subchapter 5.7, where the discussion will be presented. The willingness of a customer to recycle old outdoor equipment rises if he has a monetary benefit; either through getting back the recycling fee paid at the time of purchase or through receiving a store credit. The awareness of saving resources when purchasing a recycled outdoor jacket and when taking part in a recycling program is higher in customers above 35 than in customers under 35. Men purchase outdoor jackets more frequently as they do so when new technologies arise in the market, whereas women purchase outdoor jackets less frequently as for them the function is essential. Survey Results The survey had 202 participants but only 185 people finished all the obligatory questions. The analysis of the survey was done with the 185 complete survey responses. The personal questions were not obligatory, so there are fewer responses. Each chart which has fewer responses than 185 has a mark with the number of participants. First of all we begin with the personal information, followed by the activities. The third subchapter shows a closer look at the outdoor jackets and in the fourth subchapter, the recycling habits are presented. In subchapter 5.5 the six main questions have been analyzed with the socio-demographic factors. Socio-Demographic Data The survey was mainly sent to outdoor consumers in Germany, Switzerland and Austria, which can be seen form the chart of the country derivation of the participants. 175 people of 185 answered this question. Figure 2: Living Country (Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study) Figure 3: Age (Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study)The survey was mostly answerd by people between 26 to 35 with 69 answers. Followed by the age range of 46 to 55. With 15 answers, the age above 55 had the lowest participation. This question was answerd by 180 people. The sex of the participants is balanced: 90 male to 90 female. Figure 4: Education(Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study) Figure 5: Main Activities (Profession)As it can be seen from the graph above, the education level is high. The people have at least an apprenticeship, only five participants have just a basic education. 45 survey takers have a diploma followed by 34 with a Masters degreeand 33 with a school leaving examination. 28 participants have a Bachelors degree and 25 have an apprenticeship. Moreover, eight participants have a Ph.D. and seven have completed the examination for the master craftsmans diploma. The high educational level is also reflected in the main activity (profession) of the participants in the next chart. Most of the survey takers, with 134 out of 185, are employed. 34 students took the survey, followed by 24 participants who are self employed. Three people are unemployed. (Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study) The monthly net income shows the differences between a LOHAS curve and this surveys curve. This curve shows that over 29% have less or up to Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬1500, which can be explained by the high student participation rate. Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬1501 to Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬2500 is the next high point. The statistics of the federal office in Germany show that the average monthly net income is about Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬1300 to Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬2500. This matches the high level of a low net income, as in this survey 43% are from Germany. The second peak of Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬3501 to Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬4500 can be related to the higher net income in Switzerland and to the large number of highly educated survey takers. Only 11 participants have a net income of Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ 4500. 111 anwers to this question were collected. Figure 6: Monthly Net Income (Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study) Figure 7: Monthly Net Income (LOHAS Survey 2007) This monthly net income curve is not typical for followers of LOHAS. This fact is proofed by a survey of Burda Research Development. The LOHAS net income curve is the opposite of the survey graph. This big difference indicates that a very high number of students participated in the survey made for this thesis. Also, the weak status of the current economy could have had an effect on the net income distribution of the participants. On the other hand Wenzel, Rauch Kirig (2007) affirmed that LOHAS cannot be fixed to a social stratum, which confirms the survey of this thesis. (Wenzel, Rauch, Kirig, 2007) (Source: Own illustration based on Schmidt, Littek, Nickel, 2007) Frequency of Sports Activities Figure 8: Regularly Engaged Outdoor Sport Activities As it can be seen, in the summer and autumn, hiking is very popular. With 137 participants who execute this sport, mountain biking follows in popularity. 85 people from a total of 185 ski in the winter; this is the most popular winter sport, followed by snowboarding and ski touring. The aim of this question was to have an introduction to the outdoor section. The sequent graphs show results based on the findings of 185 questionnaires. (Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study) (Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study) Figure 9: Frequency of the Engaged Activities Above The graph below shows the frequency of engagement in the activities listed above. 52% stated that they engage in sport less than once in four weeks, while 49.7% do it once a week. More than 50% of all men do sport each week, whereas 60% of all women engage in the activity less than once in four weeks. After every second week, hiking is the most engaged-in sport activity. Jogging is the most popular sport to be engaged in once a week, followed by mountain biking. This graph shows that the majority who responded to this survey do not engage in sport every day. For this question, multiple answers were permitted. Recycling Habits The subsequent graphs are based on the findings of 185 questionnaires. Each question is related to recycling. Figure 10: Product SeparationFirst graph, the habit of consumers to recycle products of everyday use is revealed. As it can be seen, outdoor consumers are well informed about the recycling process and also take part in this process. 39 out of 185 people recycle all the products listed. From this number, 22 live in Germany, 9 in Switzerland, 2 in Austria, 1 in the Netherlands, 1 in Finland and 1 in Italy. While 23 of those surveyed are males, just 13 are females. Three other people did not share where they live. (Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study) Glass and paper/carton are the most frequently recycled materials, whereas aluminum is the lowest recycled material with 62.2%, as it can be seen on the graph. 87.6% of 185 respondents separate clothes from the domestic waste. This initial question was needed to introduce survey takers to clothing recycling habits. For this question, multiple answers were allowed. Figure 11: Frequency of Clothes Disposal (Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study)The second question was to find out the frequency of the clothes disposal. Once a year is time to put away old clothes for 35% of 185 people. 29% dispose of clothes twice a year. 27% of those surveyed clear out the cupboard less than once a year. Additionally, 6% dispose of clothes three times a year, and 3% do so more than three times a year. (Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study) Figure 12: Reasons for the Clothes Disposal The most selected reason to dispose clothes, with 76.2%, is that the clothes have not been worn for a long time, followed by the reason of damaged clothes with 66.5%. For 42.7%, the size does not fit anymore, while no more place in the cupboard follows behind with 35.1%. Purchasing new clothes is the reason for 33.5% of the participants to disposal the clothes. 31% of those surveyed select their clothes for fashion reasons. For this question, multiple answers were allowed. Figure 13: Disposal Habits Disposal habits of old clothes Disposal habits of old outdoor jackets(Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study) The aim of these two pie charts is to compare the recycling habits of old clothes and of old outdoor jackets. It can be seen that nearly a third in both pies are putting their old clothes and outdoor jackets in recycling bins. Clothes as well as outdoor jackets are likely to be given away to friends. While 20% of old clothes go to charitable organizations, 0% of outdoor jackets do. Instead, 2% reuse their old outdoor jackets for gardening. Another difference can be seen in keeping the clothes/jackets in the cupboard. 14% of outdoor jacket owners keep their old jackets in the cupboard, whereas just 6% keep their old clothes in the cupboard. These questions also had multiple response options. Closer look at outdoor jackets Figure 14: Assets of Outdoor Jacket This pie chart shows that all three types of outdoor jackets are fairly evenly distributed between the 185 participants. The aim of this question is to know which jacket is most represented. (Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study) Multiple responses were possible for this question as well. 107 survey takers own all three jackets. 32 participants have just a hard-shell jacket, and soft-shell jackets are owned by 47. An isolation jacket is owned by 53 participants. (Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study) Figure 15: Frequency of Purchase a New Outdoor Jacket Most of the customers do not intend to buy a new outdoor jacket each year. 33.5% of 185 participants buy a new outdoor jacket fewer than every third year, followed by 27.6% with Every second year and 18.4% with Every third year. Only 18.4% purchase a new outdoor jacket each year, and even fewer, 5.9% do so twice a year. Only 1.6% buy a new outdoor jacket more than twice a year. Figure 16: Purchase Reasons of New Outdoor Jackets (Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study) Most people purchase a new jacket because their current jacket is damaged or has lost its function. New fashion and new technology are nearly on the same level, and for the majority, they are not a main reason for buying a new outdoor jacket. The following questions, in which the willingness of the customer is asked, the reader needs to be aware of the intention-behavior gap. There is a difference between the intention some have and the behavior they exhibit. In this survey, the intention was found out. For more information about the intention-behavior gap, refer to subchapter 4.1.6. Figure 17: Purchase a Recycled Outdoor Jacket (Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study) The aim of this question is to gain an insight into the willingness of buying a recycled outdoor jacket. In terms of purchasing a recycled outdoor jacket, more than 80% agreed to do so. 16% are undecided and nearly 3% are not willing to buy a recycled outdoor jacket. Figure 18: Participation in a Recycling Program (Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study) The question was formulated to communicate briefly to the participant that if they recycle outdoor jackets, they help to save the environment. 75% stated that they are ready to take part in a recycling program. 19.4% are unsure about taking part and 4.8% are not ready to recycle their outdoor jackets. Recycling Possibilities In this subchapter the answers to the different recycling possibilities will be shown. Also, it was asked which return system the customer would most appreciate. Finally, there will be an overview about the willingness to take part in a recycling for outdoor jackets. Figure 19: Return MethodIn terms of popularity, the way to return the outdoor jacket is by a recycling bin with 42%, closely followed by giving the jacket back to the selling point with 39%. While 14% of all respondents would appreciate a return system by post, 5% do not want any of these returning systems. (Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study) A first method of trying to convince the customer to participate in the recycling program is with an incentive. The survey found out that with an incentive of 5 Euro, 67%, 10 Euro, 70%, 15 Euro, 74%, and 20 Euro, 80% of all respondents would be disposed to give back their outdoor jacket in a specialist shop. Figure 20: Store Credit (Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study) (Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study) Figure 21: Fixed Recycling Fee Figure 22: Height of Fixed Recycling FeeThe second method is that customers pay a fixed recycling fee. This fee has to be paid when the customer buys the outdoor jacket. The fee is additional to the normal price and will be paid pack if the customer brings the outdoor jacket back. 63% stated that they are ready to pay the fixed recycling fee. While more than 11% do not accept the recycling fee, more than 25% are unsecure about it. (Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study) This graph shows the sum the customer would be ready to pay as a recycling fee. Most of those surveyed expect to pay not more than 10 Euro. In second place is 20 Euro. In third place is 0 Euro, followed by 5 Euro in fourth. Some people would not mind paying a higher amount. 11 paricipants see 50 Euro as acceptable. Figure 23: Participation in Outdoor Jacket Recycling Ready to recycel outdoor jacket at the end of the questionair Ready to recycel outdoor jacket at the beginning of the questionair (Source: Own illustration based on survey results of this study) The first question was posed before the participants had any information about the recycling of outdoor equipment. As it can be seen, 91% were willing to participate in a recycling program. Interestingly, 12% changed their minds from ready to unready after they had received more information from the survey. This is a surprising result, as after the questionnaire, fewer people are willing to participate than before. Some comments are made, which will be disussed in the next subchapter.